Cases reported "Disease Progression"

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1/93. Serial electroencephalographic findings in patients with MELAS.

    To clarify the electroencephalographic characteristics of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), the medical records and electroencephalograms of six patients with MELAS and two of their relatives with MELA (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, and lactic acidosis, without strokelike episodes) were retrospectively reviewed. All have a point mutation in the mitochondrial dna at nucleotide position 3243. The electroencephalograms (n = 79) were divided into four groups according to the time relation to the strokelike episode: (1) before the first strokelike episode, (2) within 5 days after the strokelike episode (acute stage), (3) between 6 days and 1 month after the strokelike episode (subacute stage), and (4) more than 1 month after the strokelike episode (chronic stage). In the acute stage, 10 of the 11 electroencephalograms (9 strokelike episodes in four patients) revealed focal high-voltage delta waves with polyspikes (FHDPS), which were recognized as ictal electroencephalogram. Ictal events during FHDPS included focal clonic or myoclonic seizure and migrainous headache. In the subacute and chronic stages, focal spikes or sharp waves and 14- and 6-Hz positive bursts were frequently recorded. The authors' results suggest that FHDPSs present a reliable and accurate indicator of a strokelike episode in patients with MELAS.
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2/93. Rapid progression of cardiomyopathy in mitochondrial diabetes.

    Cardiac involvement and its clinical course in a diabetic patient with a mitochondrial tRNA(Leu)(UUR) mutation at position 3243 is reported in a 54-year-old man with no history of hypertension. At age 46, an electrocardiogram showed just T wave abnormalities. At age 49, it fulfilled SV1 RV5 or 6>35 mm with strain pattern. At age 52, echocardiography revealed definite left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and abnormally increased mitochondria were shown in biopsied endomyocardial specimens. He was diagnosed as having developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with the mutation. However, at age 54, SV1 and RV5,6 voltages were decreased, and echocardiography showed diffuse decreased LV wall motion and LV dilatation. Because he had mitochondrial diabetes, the patient's heart rapidly developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and then it seemed to be changing to a dilated LV with systolic dysfunction. Rapid progression of cardiomyopathy can occur in mitochondrial diabetes.
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3/93. Clonal change of infiltrating T-cells in children with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: possible association with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    BACKGROUND: Although familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) has been considered a T-cell disorder, to the authors' knowledge there are no previous reports on the clonal basis of FHL. In the current study the authors analyzed the clonality of T-cells in two FHL patients at the time of disease onset and at disease progression. methods: Patient 1 had FHL and died of recurrent disease 4 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). His liver and spleen showed massive infiltrations of CD3 , CD4-, and CD8 T-cells. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome was detected by in situ hybridization. Patient 2 also had FHL and died of progressive disease 9 weeks after the onset of disease despite chemotherapy. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed positive EBV genome in the peripheral blood, liver, and spleen of Patient 2. In the two patients, T-cell receptor-beta and alpha-chain variable region (TCR Vbeta and V alpha) repertoires in peripheral mononuclear cells were analyzed at the time of disease onset and at disease progression by the inverse PCR method. When a high usage (> 15%) of a specific Vbeta family member was observed, a clonal analysis was performed by PCR using beta-chain joining region (Jbeta) primers. The clonality of specific Vbeta-Jbeta fragments was confirmed by a single strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. RESULTS: Although there was no preferential usage of Vbeta in Patient 1, the exclusive expression of Jbeta1.2 for Vbeta13 was observed. A high frequency of Vbeta13 also was observed at the time of disease progression, but the Jbeta fragment for Vbeta13 was polyclonal. In Patient 2, the restricted usage of Jbeta1.6 for Vbeta5a was observed at the time of disease onset, whereas Jbeta1.1 and 1.2 for Vbeta4 were observed exclusively at the time of disease progression. The clonality of Vbeta13-Jbeta1.2 in Patient 1 and Vbeta5a-Jbeta1.6 and Vbeta4-Jbeta1.1/Jbeta1.2 in Patient 2 was confirmed by SSCP analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the polyclonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disease associated with EBV was induced after BMT in Patient 1, and that the clonal change of expanded T-cells also was induced by EBV in Patient 2. The clonal analysis of T-cells is a useful tool to clarify the pathogenesis of FHL.
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4/93. Efficacy of blood purification therapy for heat stroke presenting rapid progress of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: a comparison of five cases.

    Five patients were admitted to our hospital because of classical heat stroke during the heat waves which attacked our country in the summers 1994 and 1995. The clinical and laboratory findings of all patients suggested the rapid progress of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). blood purification (BP) therapy, in addition to conventional treatment, was performed in three of the patients. Despite their disastrous general condition, all completely recovered or recovered sufficiently to be transferred to a rehabilitation hospital. Two additional patients were treated with conventional treatment only and both died in 1-3 days after admission.Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings on admission showed no differences between the cases receiving BP therapy and those not receiving BP therapy. These findings suggest that, in heat stroke patients, additional BP therapy may provide a better prognosis than conventional therapy only. These beneficial effects of BP may have been due mainly to the removal of proinflammatory cytokines related to heat stroke.
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5/93. Deterioration in parkinsonism with low-dose pergolide.

    The administration of dopamine agonists can have a role early in the course of Parkinson's disease, in an attempt to reduce the frequency of long-term motor complications associated with the use of levodopa. After treatment with dopamine agonists has begun, gradual dose escalation is recommended to reduce the incidence of side effects; at low doses, parkinsonian symptoms significantly decline in some patients, only to improve as the dose increases. We report a number of such patients and discuss the possible pathogenesis of this motor deterioration.
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6/93. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in probable Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a clinical-anatomic correlation.

    BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare transmissible disease that typically causes a rapidly progressive dementia and leads to death in less than 1 year. Although a few anecdotal reports suggest that diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging may help substantiate premortem diagnosis of CJD, detailed correlation between radiographic data and clinical, electrophysiologic, and metabolic parameters is not available. methods: Signal abnormalities on diffusion-weighted images in 3 consecutive patients with probable CJD were correlated with psychometric features, electroencephalographic findings, and functional images with either positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography. RESULTS: Focality of abnormalities on diffusion-weighted image, not apparent on routine magnetic resonance images, correlated closely with clinical manifestations of CJD. The topographic distribution of signal abnormality on diffusion-weighted image corresponded with abnormal metabolism or perfusion on positron emission and single photon emission computed tomographic scans. In 2 cases, the laterality of diffusion abnormalities correlated with periodic sharp wave activity on electroencephalograms. CONCLUSION: These findings extend previous observations that suggested a diagnostic and localizing utility of diffusion-weighted imaging in CJD.
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7/93. Clinical and electrophysiological study in French-Canadian population with charcot-marie-tooth disease type 1A associated with 17p11.2 duplication.

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine the frequency and the phenotypic manifestations in a French-Canadian population with a chromosome 17p11.2 duplication (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A, CMT-1A). methods: Molecular analysis were performed by Southern blot using pVAW409R3a probe. Clinical evaluation was carried out according to the scale defined by the European HMSN Consortium. RESULTS: The frequency of duplication was found to be similar in the adult (70.8%) and pediatric (72.7%) populations. Onset of symptoms occurred before 20 years of age in 85.7% of adult cases and before the age of 5 in 80% of the pediatric cases. The classical CMT syndrome was observed in 77% of the cases and the syndrome was associated with additional features in 15% of cases in the adult population. All the children presented with classical CMT syndrome with no additional features. There was a significant correlation between the disability score and the duration of the disease but no correlation was found between median nerve conduction velocity and the functional handicap, the age at onset or the duration of the disease. In one family, there was a very conspicuous anticipation over five observed generations. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the age at onset, the clinical and electrophysiological variability as well as the functional disability variations in a French-Canadian population did not differ from those reported in other populations.
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8/93. Generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa: a case of severe hemidesmosomal deficiency.

    A case of generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa was followed from birth to 14 years of age. Electron microscopy of the blistered skin showed either the absence or greatly reduced hemidesmosomes of a very poorly developed type. In perilesional skin, the frequency of hemidesmosomes was 1/3 to 1/2 of the normal controls. These hemidesmosomes were small and lacked normal ultrastructures. Anchoring filaments did not cluster underneath them, and the anchoring fibrils were also diminished. In view of the published data correlating the genotype to the phenotype, this patient seems to have a homozygous nonsense mutation of the COL17A1 gene encoding collagen XVII. An accumulation of data may eventually enable electron microscopists to estimate the types of gene mutation.
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9/93. Natural course of combined limb and palatal tremor caused by cerebellar-brain stem infarction.

    After infarction of the left superior cerebellar peduncle and dentate nucleus, a patient developed tremor of the left upper limb beginning on the twelfth day followed by palatal tremor appearing 10 months after infarction. Surface electromyogram revealed a difference in the frequency of the tremor in the upper limb and soft palate. When the palatal tremor appeared, brain magnetic resonance T2-weighted images revealed high signal intensity of the contralateral, right inferior olivary nucleus. Subsequently, when the amplitude of palatal tremor became less severe, the high olivary signal intensity subsided whereas the hypertrophy of the nucleus remained. This patient provides useful information on the pathogenesis of skeletal and palatal tremor with brain stem or cerebellar lesions based on the differences in the onset and frequency of tremors and morphologic changes in the inferior olive.
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10/93. Effect of open label pulse cyclophosphamide therapy on MRI measures of disease activity in five patients with refractory relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response to cyclophosphamide (CTX) of five patients who failed an average three treatments with multiple other therapeutic agents, using serial monthly MRI measures. methods: Five patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and documented MRI disease activity were started on monthly pulse intravenous CTX at a dose of 1 g/m2. CTX was administered without an induction phase according to the protocol similar to the treatment of lupus nephritis. The five patients were followed with monthly MRI and clinical evaluation for a mean of 28 months. RESULTS: All the patients showed a rapid reduction in the contrast-enhancing lesion frequency and in three patients there was a decrease in the T2 lesion load within the first 5 months after starting CTX treatment. The administration of CTX during overnight hospitalization was safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that aggressive immunosuppressive therapy may be useful in some rapidly deteriorating refractory patients and further controlled study should be considered in order to full evaluate this type of treatment as a potential therapy in MS.
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