Cases reported "Disease Progression"

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1/285. technetium-99m-HmPAO brain SPECT in infantile Gaucher's disease.

    The authors report serial technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings in two infants with Gaucher's disease type 2. Detailed neurologic and laboratory examinations, including bone marrow biopsies and enzymatic assays, were described. Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging studies in one patient illustrated the progressive cerebral atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes. The SPECT in both cases demonstrated positive findings of initial scattered hypoperfusion, with extending to hypoperfusion of the entire cerebrum after 4 months of clinical deterioration. These changes in the SPECT findings may reflect progressive degeneration of the cerebrum in Gaucher's disease type 2. brain SPECT may provide useful information on cerebral flow and metabolic distribution corresponding to the neurologic deficits of neuronopathic Gaucher's disease.
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keywords = bone
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2/285. Multifocal osteosarcoma: an unusual presentation.

    PURPOSE: Report the unusual presentation, clinical course, and cytogenetic abnormalities in a child with multifocal osteosarcoma. patients AND methods: A 10-year-old boy had multifocal osteosarcoma involving the entire skeleton, pleura, bone marrow, and lungs. He had marked anemia, thrombocytopenia, and severe hypocalcemia at diagnosis. RESULTS: Despite aggressive chemotherapy, he died from progressive disease 1 month after diagnosis. cytogenetic analysis of tumor cells within the pleural fluid showed multiple chromosomal abnormalities with amplification of the c-myc oncogene. CONCLUSION: Multifocal osteosarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child with pancytopenia and multiple bone lesions. Amplification of the c-myc oncogene may have had a significant role in the pathogenesis, etiology, and rapid progression of this patient's multifocal disease. Additional studies will be needed to determine the biologic significance of c-myc amplification in multifocal osteosarcoma.
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keywords = bone
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3/285. Clinical, pathologic, and neurochemical studies of an unusual case of neuronal storage disease with lamellar cytoplasmic inclusions: a new genetic disorder?

    A child of first-cousin Puerto Rican parents had global developmental delay, failure to thrive, and hypotonia since early infancy. At 1 1/2 years of age, she developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of progressive motor and sensory neuropathy. At 2 1/2 years, she developed visual impairment and optic atrophy followed by gradual involvement of the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Uncontrollable myoclonic seizures began at 4 years and she died at 6 years of age. Motor nerve conduction velocities were initially normal and later became markedly slowed. Sensory distal latency responses were absent. Lysosomal enzyme activities in leukocytes and fibroblasts were normal. sural nerve and two muscle biopsies showed only nondiagnostic abnormalities. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes, skin, and fibroblasts showed cytoplasmic inclusions. light microscopy of frontal cortex biopsy showed neuronal storage material staining positively with Luxol fast blue, and electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic membranous bodies in neurons, suggesting an accumulation of a ganglioside. At autopsy, all organs were small but otherwise normal and without abnormal storage cells in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Anterior spinal nerve roots showed loss of large myelinated axons. The brain was small and atrophic; cortical neurons showed widespread accumulation of storage material, most marked in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Subcortical white matter was gliotic with loss of axons and myelin sheaths. In cortical gray matter there was a 35% elevation of total gangliosides, with a 16-fold increase in GM3, a three- to four-fold increase in GM2 gangliosides, and a 15-fold elevation of lactosyl ceramide. GM3 sialidase activity was normal in gray matter at 3.1 nmols/mg protein per hour and lactosyl ceraminidase I and II activities were 70% to 80% of normal. In white matter, total myelin was reduced by 50% but its composition was normal. Phospholipid distribution and sphingomyelin content were normal in gray matter, white matter, and in the liver. These biochemical findings were interpreted as nonspecific abnormalities. The nature of the neuronal storage substance remains to be determined.
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keywords = bone
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4/285. Correction of bone marrow failure in dyskeratosis congenita by bone marrow transplantation.

    dyskeratosis congenita is recognized by its dermal lesions and constitutional aplastic anemia in some cases. We report successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in two siblings with this disease from their sister, and their long term follow-up. We used reduced doses of cyclophosphamide and busulfan for conditioning instead of total body irradiation. Also, we report late adverse effects of transplantation which are not distinguishable from the natural course of disease.
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keywords = bone
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5/285. Spontaneous remission of anemia associated with a myelodysplastic syndrome with disease evolution into a myeloproliferative state.

    A red cell transfusion-dependent patient with a myelodysplastic syndrome had progression into a myeloproliferative state with thrombocytosis. At the same time, the patient became transfusion independent, and a subsequent bone marrow examination revealed a previously undetected loss of chromosome 7. The patient remains well with control of thrombocytosis by anagrelide therapy.
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keywords = bone
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6/285. Circulating levels of beta-chemokines in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests the role of beta-chemokines and their receptors in human immunodeficiency virus infection. We examined the serum levels of beta-chemokines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). methods: The serum levels of beta-chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, RANTES, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in patients with SLE were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the patients with SLE and healthy controls in the serum concentrations of RANTES (p < 0.001) and MCP-1 (p < 0.01), but not MIP-1alpha (p = 0.07) and MIP-1beta (p = 0.68). A decrease of RANTES and an increase of MCP-1 was observed with the progression of disease activity in the patients with SLE. CONCLUSION: Changes in the serum levels of RANTES and MCP-1 may indicate an interaction between SLE disease activity and the production of beta-chemokines.
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ranking = 9.958127095602
keywords = macrophage
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7/285. Study of the cell biology and biochemistry of cherubism.

    AIMS: To establish whether the multinucleate cells in lesions of patients with cherubism are also osteoclasts and if this is the case whether they were responsive to calcitonin; to carry out cytogenetic studies on two members of the same family affected by cherubism in an attempt to identify any major chromosomal defects; and to perform an in-depth modern biochemical study of four children in the same family. SUBJECTS AND methods: Four related children with cherubism were studied. Tissue taken from one of the children at elective decompression of an optic nerve was submitted to in vitro bone resorption studies. Cytogenetic studies were done on two of the children and biochemical studies on all four. RESULTS: The multinucleate cells in the cherubic lesions were shown to be osteoclasts since they synthesised tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, expressed the vitronectin receptor, and resorbed bone. bone resorption by the cultured multinucleate cells was significantly inhibited by calcitonin. High resolution cytogenetic studies failed to detect any chromosomal abnormalities in two children with cherubism. The biochemistry profile of all four children with cherubism showed that serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, parathyroid related hormone, calcitonin, and alkaline phosphatase were within normal levels. urine analysis of pyridinium and deoxypyridinium cross links, hydroxyproline, and calcium in relation to urine creatinine were measured to assess bone resorption in these children, and the values were at the upper end of the normal range in all four. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are required to determine whether calcitonin treatment will control this grossly deforming disease until the time when the physiological changes that occur at puberty rectify the pathology. It is not recommended that biochemical markers of bone resorption are used in isolation to monitor the activity of cherubism in individuals because the results are based on a small number of children and because of reports of marked interindividual variation in the levels of these markers, particularly in children.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bone
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8/285. Clonal change of infiltrating T-cells in children with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: possible association with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    BACKGROUND: Although familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) has been considered a T-cell disorder, to the authors' knowledge there are no previous reports on the clonal basis of FHL. In the current study the authors analyzed the clonality of T-cells in two FHL patients at the time of disease onset and at disease progression. methods: Patient 1 had FHL and died of recurrent disease 4 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). His liver and spleen showed massive infiltrations of CD3 , CD4-, and CD8 T-cells. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome was detected by in situ hybridization. Patient 2 also had FHL and died of progressive disease 9 weeks after the onset of disease despite chemotherapy. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed positive EBV genome in the peripheral blood, liver, and spleen of Patient 2. In the two patients, T-cell receptor-beta and alpha-chain variable region (TCR Vbeta and V alpha) repertoires in peripheral mononuclear cells were analyzed at the time of disease onset and at disease progression by the inverse PCR method. When a high usage (> 15%) of a specific Vbeta family member was observed, a clonal analysis was performed by PCR using beta-chain joining region (Jbeta) primers. The clonality of specific Vbeta-Jbeta fragments was confirmed by a single strand confirmation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. RESULTS: Although there was no preferential usage of Vbeta in Patient 1, the exclusive expression of Jbeta1.2 for Vbeta13 was observed. A high frequency of Vbeta13 also was observed at the time of disease progression, but the Jbeta fragment for Vbeta13 was polyclonal. In Patient 2, the restricted usage of Jbeta1.6 for Vbeta5a was observed at the time of disease onset, whereas Jbeta1.1 and 1.2 for Vbeta4 were observed exclusively at the time of disease progression. The clonality of Vbeta13-Jbeta1.2 in Patient 1 and Vbeta5a-Jbeta1.6 and Vbeta4-Jbeta1.1/Jbeta1.2 in Patient 2 was confirmed by SSCP analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the polyclonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disease associated with EBV was induced after BMT in Patient 1, and that the clonal change of expanded T-cells also was induced by EBV in Patient 2. The clonal analysis of T-cells is a useful tool to clarify the pathogenesis of FHL.
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keywords = bone
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9/285. posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome may not be reversible.

    The association of an acute reversible encephalopathy with transient occipital lobe abnormalities on imaging studies is well known. This condition has been called reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. The clinical presentation usually includes seizures, headache, altered mental status, and blindness, often associated with hypertension and immunosuppressants. The authors discuss a two-year-old male with down syndrome who presented 2 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with severe oculogyric crisis, without other complaints. The patient was being treated for hypertension and was receiving cyclosporine for prophylaxis of graft-vs-host disease. A computed tomography scan of the head revealed marked bilateral lucencies mainly involving the white matter of the occipital lobes, with a few foci of punctate hemorrhage. The condition improved when cyclosporine was discontinued, but an area of leukomalacia was identified on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. To the authors' knowledge, oculogyric crisis as a presentation of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy has not been previously described. Recognizing this association is important, because patients receiving cyclosporine are often receiving other medications that can potentially cause dystonic eye movements, possibly leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment, which can result in an irreversible neurologic deficit.
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keywords = bone
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10/285. Slow progression of juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy 6 years after bone marrow transplantation.

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy refers to a group of genetic neurologic diseases caused by deficiencies of the enzyme arylsulfatase A and the resulting accumulation of sulfatides in white matter. bone marrow transplantation has been advocated as a treatment in an attempt to correct the enzyme deficiency. Such a transplant was performed in 1991 in a 16-year-old girl with a form of late juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy caused by a homozygous P426L mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene. Engraftment was prompt and resulted in constant enzymatic normalization of circulating lymphocytes. The elevated urinary excretion of sulfatides remained unaffected. Clinical findings up until transplantation consisted of gait disturbances, impairment of cognitive functioning, and deterioration in school performance over several years. During a 6-year follow-up period, the patient's condition was subject to major fluctuations but, on the whole, findings showed slow neurologic and neurophysiologic deterioration. The clinical course observed after bone marrow transplantation probably more or less reflects the natural course expected in this form of late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy.
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keywords = bone
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