Cases reported "Disease Progression"

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11/285. blindness from bad bones.

    Progressive visual loss is the most common neurologic finding in osteopetrosis. Several mechanisms may explain this phenomenon, including compression of the optic nerves caused by bony overgrowth of the optic canals and retinal degeneration. We report a child with osteopetrosis and progressive visual loss, even though patent optic canals were demonstrated by computed tomography and digital holography. This patient's visual loss was caused by increased intracranial pressure secondary, to obstruction of cerebral venous outflow at the jugular foramen. This case points to the importance of a full evaluation of the skull base foramina in the diagnostic workup of visual loss in patients with osteopetrosis.
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12/285. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an intradiploic epidermoid cyst.

    A 71-year-old woman presented with the symptoms of a posterior cranial fossa mass. CT and MRI revealed a lytic lesion in the occipital bone and a tumour infiltrating the dura mater, venous sinuses and cerebellum. Histopathology demonstrated a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma arising from a primarily intradiploic epidermoid cyst. Despite surgery and radiotherapy, the tumour progressed and the patient died 1 year later.
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13/285. Protracted course of Krabbe disease in an adult patient bearing a novel mutation.

    BACKGROUND: Krabbe disease, or globoid cell leukodystrophy, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of galactocerebrosidase (GALC) activity. Although most cases are diagnosed in infancy and show a fatal outcome in childhood, adult patients have been identified, showing progressive spastic hemiparesis to tetraparesis, followed by optic atrophy, dementia, and neuropathy. The disease can be diagnosed by detecting the deficiency of GALC activity (less than 5% of normal) in any available tissue sample. The cloning of the human GALC gene allowed the molecular characterization of newly diagnosed patients. More than 75 disease-causing mutations and polymorphisms in this gene have been identified. OBJECTIVE: To describe a 28-year-old woman with Krabbe disease, correlating clinical and biochemical abnormalities to a novel mutation on the GALC gene. methods: Clinical investigation was enriched by neurophysiological and neuroimaging data. The activity of GALC was assayed in white blood cells using radiolabeled natural substrate. Genomic dna was isolated from peripheral blood, and the GALC gene was sequenced. The mutated gene was expressed and GALC activity was measured in transfected COS-1 cells. RESULTS: The patient had progressive and bilateral amaurosis starting at 8 years of age. Although she was experiencing weakness in all her extremities, her intellect remained intact. She was found to be homozygous for a previously unreported missense mutation (T1886G), which leads to low, but not totally deficient, GALC activity. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of this mutation in COS-1 cells using the pcDNA3 expression vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif) resulted in low, although not null, GALC activity, which can explain the protracted clinical course in this patient. patients carrying the mutation described herein might be potential candidates for therapeutic trials, such as bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy.
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14/285. Myelodysplastic syndrome that progressed to acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia showing peculiar chromosomal abnormality: a case report.

    Myelodysplastic syndrome is a closely related group of acquired bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective and dysplastic hematopoiesis. These clonal disorders frequently progress to acute leukemia. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia is characterized by an increase in abnormal eosinophils in the bone marrow, relatively good clinical course and inv (16) chromosomal abnormality. We experienced one case of refractory anemia with excess blasts which progressed to refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation and finally to acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia showing peculiar chromosomal abnormalities of der (1;7).
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15/285. Microvesicular steatosis, hemosiderosis and rapid development of liver cirrhosis in a patient with Pearson's syndrome.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pearson's marrow-pancreas syndrome consists of refractory sideroblastic anemia with vacuolization of marrow precursors and exocrine pancreas dysfunction. patients with this disease usually have large deletions of the mitochondrial genome. We report a patient with Pearson's syndrome who had predominantly hepatic manifestations such as microvesicular steatosis, hemosiderosis and rapidly developing cirrhosis. methods: Analysis of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, determination of enzyme activities and of the hepatic iron content were performed using standard techniques of molecular biology and biochemistry. RESULTS: The patient had typical ringed sideroblasts in a bone marrow smear and a 7436-bp deletion of the mitochondrial genome in all tissues investigated, compatible with Pearson's syndrome. He died within 3 months after birth due to liver failure. Histopathological analysis of the liver revealed complete cirrhosis with signs of chronic cholestasis, microvesicular steatosis and massive hemosiderosis. In addition, the patient was heterozygous for the C282Y and H63D mutations of the hemochromatosis gene. CONCLUSIONS: Pearson's syndrome should be added to the list of neonatal diseases which can cause microvesicular steatosis, hepatic accumulation of iron and liver cirrhosis.
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16/285. Smoldering acute myelogenous leukemia in the elderly.

    Out of 75 consecutive elderly AML patients who did not receive anti-leukemic treatment (52 pts) or failed to respond to differentiating agent (23 pts), 6 patients had survivals of 13.2 to 98 months with treatment restricted to supportive care. This cut-point is far longer than the median survival of the 235 elderly patients (3.5 mo.), either untreated (med. survival: 1 mo.) or treated (with treatment ranging from conventional induction to palliative chemotherapy) (4 mo.), admitted to our department within the same period of time. These cases of smoldering AML (4 women, 2 men) were all of AML2 FAB subtype (4 de novo, 2 post MDS) and presented with a significantly better performance status, lower WBC and circulating blast counts, higher platelet counts and with lower bone marrow infiltration than AML cases with more rapid progression. Cytogenetical analysis when available (3 pts) showed normal karyotypes and clonogenic assay performed in 3 of these patients showed a lack of (2 pts) or reduced in vitro leukemic cell growth (1 pt). The identification of specific characteristics of smoldering leukemia in the elderly might be an important development in the understanding of the physiopathology of acute leukemia and a tool for helping decision-making when selecting the time and intensity of cytotoxic treatment in these older patients.
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17/285. Development of IgG lambda multiple myeloma in a patient with cutaneous CD30 anaplastic T-cell lymphoma.

    We report a patient with an epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma which transformed into an anaplastic cutaneous CD30 T-cell lymphoma. Repeated relapses required prolonged systemic puva therapy. Two years after diagnosis, the patient had several episodes of infections of the respiratory tract. serum electrophoresis now revealed significantly reduced polyclonal immunglobulin production and an additional band in the gamma fraction corresponding to IgG lambda monoclonal gammopathy. Thereafter, the patient suffered a pathologic fracture of the dorsolateral 5th rib on the right side and an accumulation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (IgG lambda). Accordingly, 6 cycles of cytoreductive chemotherapy (alkeran, decortin) were given. After one year of steady state disease the patient lost weight and bone pain increased while only a few papular eruptions were detectable. radiography showed multiple small osteolytic areas. A few months later he died with signs of bone marrow insufficiency.
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18/285. Mobility challenges and solutions for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive soft tissue ossification. Although signs may be present at birth, the first appearance of ectopic bone typically occurs in early childhood. The primary target is the axial musculature. Eventually ectopic bone also occurs in ligaments, fascia, aponeurosis, tendons, and joint capsules of the appendicular skeleton with a proximal to distal predilection. As the disease advances, mobility becomes restricted, and affected individuals are typically limited to bed or chair by their early 30s. This report describes a 30-year-old woman with advanced FOP. She had a fused spine and a fixed pelvis, with hips and knees locked in flexion and feet in plantarflexion. Her upper limb mobility was similarly restricted. She was not able to stand upright or sit independently. The modification of a commercially available power wheelchair that allowed the patient to maintain her employment as a preschool teacher and custom shoes are described. Creative physiatric intervention is essential to liberate human potential for people with FOP.
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19/285. High grade, synchronous colon cancers after renal transplantation: were immunosuppressive drugs to blame?

    Recipients of renal transplants are known to have an increased incidence of cancer, which is believed to be related to the use of immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent rejection. Although the risks of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are clearly increased in this setting, the association with colon cancer is controversial. We report a 44-yr-old woman, 20 yr post-renal transplant, and with no family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, who was found to have synchronous, poorly differentiated colon cancers associated with extensive abdominal lymph node, bone marrow, and bone (skull) metastasis. The long term immunosuppressive drugs that she had received may have been an important factor in her tumor development and/or progression. Our case and literature review suggest a possible mild, increased risk of colon cancer development in patients after renal transplantation.
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20/285. McCune-Albright syndrome with fibrous dysplasia of the paranasal sinuses.

    We report a 19-year old female patient with the McCune-Albright syndrome, which is a rare disease consisting of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (FD) of bone associated with brown pigmented areas of the skin and several endocrine dysfunctions. The patient had FD involving the paranasal sinuses, the middle turbinate and the skull. The endocrine dysfunction of the patient concerns both growth hormone and prolactin hypersecretion. Because the patient had no major symptoms, neither surgical nor medical treatment was applied. Five-year follow-up revealed no complication and enlargement of the lesion.
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