Cases reported "Disease Progression"

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1/53. Focal, steroid responsive myositis causing dropped head syndrome.

    The dropped head syndrome, which occurs in a variety of neuromuscular disorders, is usually not due to an inflammatory process and generally either self-limited or nonresponsive to therapy. We present an 80-year-old woman who developed progressive neck weakness over a few months due to a focal and restricted inflammatory process involving the neck extensor muscles. She responded dramatically to treatment with immunosuppressive therapy.
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2/53. Central neurocytoma of the fourth ventricle. Case report.

    The authors report on a 17-year-old boy who suffered from slowly progressive and long-standing symptoms of ataxia, neck pain, and headache. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a tumor arising from the floor of the fourth ventricle that resulted in a moderate hydrocephalus. A partial resection was performed. Histological and immunohistological findings led to the diagnosis of an atypical central neurocytoma of the fourth ventricle. The imaging features on CT scanning, MR imaging, and proton MR spectroscopy studies, the clinical picture, and the prognosis of this very unusual tumor are discussed. Three cases of neurocytomas in the posterior fossa have been described to date; however, in all three cases some atypical aspects were present. In the present case, with the exception of the very unusual location, both imaging findings and clinical history perfectly met the definition of this rare tumor.
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3/53. Unilateral proptosis resulting from giant-cell arteritis.

    BACKGROUND: Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic, inflammatory vasculopathy that affects small- to medium-sized arteries. Arterial wall inflammation results in reduction of blood flow and subsequent ischemia. Arteries of the head and neck are particularly susceptible, including the ophthalmic and posterior ciliary arteries. The eye care provider is in a position to assist with the ultimate diagnosis of GCA. CASE REPORT: A 79-year-old black man was referred to the eye clinic for evaluation of exophthalmos of the left eye. The patient reported increasing proptosis over the previous 6 months; a history of sudden, permanent vision loss of the affected eye (approximately 2 years earlier); and generalized malaise and chronic frontal headache. Examination did reveal an exophthalmic eye of approximately 8-mm difference by Hertel exophthalmometry. Fundus examination revealed optic nerve pallor O.S. CT scan revealed chronic inflammatory changes of orbital tissue, including the extraocular muscles. No compressive lesions were present. Laboratory testing indicated an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A tentative diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis was made, which was confirmed with temporal artery biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: patients with ocular complications secondary to GCA manifest several different ocular symptoms, including unilateral and bilateral intermittent blur, sudden complete vision loss, double vision, etc. This was an unusual case of GCA because the initially manifested ocular sign was unilateral proptosis. The patient probably had initial ocular complications of GCA 2 years previously, with sudden loss of vision in the left eye. The patient never sought medical attention at that time, and the unilateral exophthalmic eye resulted from chronic inflammatory orbital changes associated with GCA.
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4/53. Central retinal vein occlusion: report of two familial cases.

    The authors report a 46-year-old father and 17-year-old son who each presented with unilateral central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and bilateral abnormalities of retinal vascular perfusion. The son presented with a nonperfused CRVO in the left eye, developed traction-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated with vitreous surgery, and developed prolonged arteriovenous filling in the retina of the fellow eye. The father presented with progressive CRVO in the right eye, developed choroido-vitreal neovascularization following laser treatment to create a chorioretinal anastomosis, underwent vitrectomy for retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage in that eye, and developed prolonged arm-eye and retinal arteriovenous circulation times in the fellow eye. An extensive evaluation (including hematological studies and imaging of the major vessels of the neck) failed to reveal a predisposing cause in either patient although echocardiography disclosed a mitral valve thrombus in the father. After institution of coumadin therapy, the circulatory parameters in the fellow eye of each patient improved.
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5/53. Dedifferentiation of neoplastic cells in medullary thyroid carcinoma: report of a case.

    We report herein the unusual case of a man who was diagnosed as having sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) at the age of 29 years, and subsequently followed up for a period of 18 years. A total thyroidectomy with radical neck dissection was initially performed, followed by a stable interval of 16 years with regional metastases. He then developed widely disseminated metastases resulting in death within 2 years at the age of 47 years. While the neoplastic tissue from localized metastases in the soft tissue of the neck expressed strong immunohistochemical positivity to calcitonin (CT), calcitonin gene-related peptide, carcinoembryonic antigen, neuron-specific enolase, and chromogranin a during the stable interval, extremely weakened immunoreactivity to those markers was observed in samples from the disseminated metastases in the subcutaneous tissue after his clinical deterioration. Furthermore, only a few neoplastic cells in specimens obtained at postmortem sampling exhibited a weak response to CT. Ultrastructurally, the characteristic secretory granules in the neoplastic cells decreased remarkably in number, consistent with the immunohistochemical findings. These granules also diminished in diameter and intracytoplasmic small lumina and intercellular clefts with microvilli, interpreted as an attribute of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, were frequently observed in tissues obtained after his clinical deterioration or at postmortem sampling. These cytological changes might represent dedifferentiation of the neoplastic cells or the anaplastic transformation of MTC.
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6/53. Progressive bone resorption after pathological fracture of the femoral neck in Hunter's syndrome.

    We report a case of Hunter's syndrome associated with a transverse fracture of the left femoral neck after minor trauma, followed by progressive resorption of the femoral head at 12 years of age and a stress fracture of the right femoral neck at 16 years of age. MRI performed at 15 years of age revealed intra-articular low intensity on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images of both hip joints. The MR finding may represent fibrous synovial thickening, which caused pressure erosion of the femoral neck, resultant pathological and/or stress fractures, and subsequent osteonecrosis with rapid absorption of the femoral head.
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7/53. osteoradionecrosis of the cervical vertebrae and occipital bone: a case report and brief review of the literature.

    osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a common complication of radiation therapy. We present the first case reported in the literature of ORN involving the first and second cervical vertebrae and occipital bone in a patient who was treated with surgery and radiation therapy 9 years prior for a TxN3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the left neck arising from an unknown primary origin. A brief review of the pathophysiology and treatment of this pathological process is also presented. Although the mandible is the most commonly affected site in the head and neck, ORN may develop in an unusual location without any preceding trauma and display an insidious but rapidly progressive course. The pathophysiology of ORN is believed to be a complex metabolic and homeostatic deficiency created by radiation-induced cellular injury and fibrosis, which is characterized by the formation of hypoxic, hypovascular, and hypocellular tissue. The irradiated bone loses its capability to increase the metabolic requirements and nutrient supply required to replace normal collagen and cellular components lost through routine wear. This results in tissue breakdown and the formation of a chronic nonhealing wound. infection plays only a contaminant role, with trauma being a possible initiating factor. diagnosis of ORN begins with a complete physical examination, including fiberoptic examination and biopsy of any suspicious lesion to eliminate the possibility of recurrent tumor. Treatment of ORN commonly requires the debridement of necrotic bone and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The head and neck surgeon must possess a high degree of suspicion to promptly diagnose ORN and initiate early treatment. Because of similarities in clinical presentation, the most important step in the initial management of suspected ORN is to eliminate the possibility of tumor recurrence or a new primary.
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8/53. Plummer's disease with spontaneous progression to hypothyroidism.

    A case of Plummer's disease that spontaneously progressed to hypothyroidism is presented. A 49-year-old female visited our hospital because of a 3 kg decrease in body weight during the previous month and a painless nodule in the right anterior area of her neck. A diagnosis of Plummer's disease was made based on the results of thyroid function tests, thyroid scintigrams, and an ultrasonogram, but the patient's disease followed an usual clinical course. About two months later, she gradually developed manifestations of permanent hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid autoantibodies became positive. In spite of continuous administration of levothyroxine sodium, uptake of 99mTcO4- to the nodule was unchanged or rather increased according to the consecutive thyroid scintigraphies. These results suggested that this case represented an autonomously functioning nodule with underlying silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease.
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9/53. A case of Dowling-Degos disease suggesting an evolutional sequence.

    We report a 47-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic reticulate hyperpigmentations on the neck, lateral face, axillae, trunk, inguinal areas, and dorsa of both hands and feet. We thought it was an unusual case in the spectrum between the pole of Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) and that of reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura (RAK). Another interesting point was that the biopsied specimens from the abdomen, neck, and axillary lesions showed somewhat different histopathologic features from typical DDD, suggesting an evolutional sequence. From these findings we suggest that a lichenoid inflammation may be responsible for the typical maculo-papular lesions of DDD.
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10/53. Markedly severe dystonia in Japanese encephalitis.

    encephalitis has been reported to be a rare cause of severe dystonia. We describe five patients with markedly severe dystonia from Japanese encephalitis. These patients with markedly severe dystonia were seen during the past 8 years as a subgroup of 50 patients with Japanese encephalitis. The diagnosis of markedly severe dystonia was based on increasingly frequent episodes of generalized dystonia with bulbar, respiratory, or metabolic derangement or leading to exhaustion or pain. The diagnosis of JE was based on clinicoradiologic features and a fourfold increase of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers in paired serum. The outcome of the patients was defined as a good, partial, or poor recovery on the basis of 1-year clinical status. All the patients were males, and their ages ranged from 6 to 19 years. movement disorders appeared 1 to 3 weeks after the illness as the level of consciousness started improving. During the next 1 to 4 weeks, patients began to experience markedly severe dystonia. It was associated with marked axial dystonia resulting in opisthotonus and retrocollis in five patients, jaw-opening dystonia in two patients, teeth clenching in one patient, and oculogyric crisis and neck deviation in another patient. The attacks of markedly severe dystonia lasted for 2 to 30 minutes and occurred as many as 20 to 30 times daily. Other developments included fixed limb dystonia in one patient, severe spasticity and rigidity in five patients, and focal muscle wasting in one patient. These patients had only a modest improvement after treatment. Markedly severe dystonia abated by 2 to 6 months in all the patients who were followed up. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral thalamic involvement in all patients, brainstem involvement in three patients, and basal ganglia involvement in two patients. At the 3-month follow-up, all patients had a poor outcome. At 1 year, one patient had a complete recovery; one had a partial recovery; and two were bedridden. It can be concluded that markedly severe dystonia is an important and serious sequela of Japanese encephalitis and may occur as the result of thalamus, midbrain, or basal ganglia involvement in various combinations.
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