Cases reported "Disease Progression"

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1/19. Translocation (4;15)(p16;q24): a novel reciprocal translocation in a patient with BCR/ABL negative myeloproliferative syndrome progressing to blastic phase.

    A patient with BCR/ABL negative myeloproliferative syndrome with a 46,XY,del(3)(q21), t(4;15)(p16;q24) karyotype is described. fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with chromosomes 4 and 15 painting probes confirmed a novel reciprocal (4;15) translocation. The absence of crkl tyrosine phosphorylation, no activation of the abl kinase as measured by autophosphorylation, and a normal-size abl transcript suggest an alternative mechanism for leukemogenesis to that operative in Ph positive BCR/ABL positive chronic myeloid leukemia. A number of genes potentially relevant to tumorigenesis, some involving the ras signaling pathway, map to the 4p16 and 15q24 chromosome regions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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2/19. Analysis of tumor cell evolution in a melanoma: evidence of mutational and selective pressure for loss of p16ink4 and for microsatellite instability.

    Tumorigenesis and tumor progression can be considered an evolutionary process. In order to deduce information on the mutational and selective pressures during melanoma progression we performed microsatellite analysis at 42 autosomal and two X-linked loci in a microdissected primary melanoma and its nine metastases. Loss of heterozygosity at locus D9S259 was the only genetic change observed in all metastases. The pattern of loss of heterozygosity at loci D9S162 and D9S171 within the region of common loss on chromosome 9p21 which encompasses the tumor suppressor gene p16ink4 enabled the distinction of four genetically different tumor cell populations. Three cell lineages showed homozygous loss of the p16ink4 gene, which evolved independently in each tumor cell population within the primary tumor. Additional allele losses could be demonstrated at markers D14S53 and DXS998. The fourth lineage did not demonstrate loss of heterozygosity at loci D9S162 and D9S171 and contained the wild type p16ink4 gene but was characterized by abundant microsatellite instability. The evolutionary approach towards tumorigenesis and tumor progression used in this study thus confirms the role of p16ink4 inactivation for melanoma progression but not for melanoma initiation; it suggests the existence of additional putative tumor suppressor genes located on 9p as well as on the long arm of chromosome 14 and shows that microsatellite instability may represent an alternative pathway of tumor cell evolution in malignant melanoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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3/19. Molecular features of a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line with spontaneous metastatic progression.

    A novel human cell line was established from a primary botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction investigations of this cell line, called RUCH-2, demonstrated expression of the regulatory factors PAX3, Myf3 and Myf5. After 3.5 months in culture, cells underwent a crisis after which Myf3 and Myf5 could no longer be detected, whereas PAX3 expression remained constant over the entire period. karyotype analysis revealed breakpoints in regions similar to previously described alterations in primary rhabdomyosarcoma tumour samples. Interestingly, cells progressed to a metastatic phenotype, as observed by enhanced invasiveness in vitro and tumour growth in nude mice in vivo. On the molecular level, microarray analysis before and after progression identified extensive changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. As expected, down-regulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases were observed. Extensive down-regulation of several death receptors of the tumour necrosis factor family suggests that these cells might have an altered response to appropriate apoptotic stimuli. The RUCH-2 cell line represents a cellular model to study multistep tumorigenesis in human rhabdomyosarcoma, allowing molecular comparison of tumorigenic versus metastatic cancer cells.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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4/19. Deletion 7p in gastric MALT lymphoma.

    Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 7 has been related to loss of tumor suppressor genes which may constitute a primary step of carcinogenesis in many kinds of malignancies, including low-grade B-cell lymphoma. However, deletion of the short arm of chromosome 7, del(7p), in low-grade B-cell lymphoma has not been reported. Here, we report a case of gastric MALT lymphoma with the chromosome aberration del(7p) which progressed in spite of eradication of Helicobactor pylori. Deletion 7p may represent a new karyotypic change that is possibly related to autonomous growth of MALT lymphoma.
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ranking = 0.15290682622084
keywords = carcinogenesis
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5/19. Analysis of p53 inactivation in a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax transgenic mouse model.

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). The HTLV-1 Tax protein has been strongly linked to oncogenesis and is considered to be the transforming protein of this virus. A Tax transgenic mouse model was utilized to study the contribution of p53 inactivation to Tax-mediated tumorigenesis. These mice develop primary, peripheral tumors consisting of large granular lymphocytic (LGL) cells, which also infiltrate the lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lungs. Primary Tax-induced tumors and tumor-derived cell lines exhibited functional inactivation of the p53 apoptotic pathway; such tumors and tumor cell lines were resistant to an apoptosis-inducing stimulus. In contrast, p53 mutations in tumors were found to be associated with secondary organ infiltration. Three of four identified mutations inhibited transactivation and apoptosis induction activities in vitro. Furthermore, experiments which involved mating Tax transgenic mice with p53-deficient mice demonstrated minimal acceleration in initial tumor formation, but significantly accelerated disease progression and death in mice heterozygous for p53. These studies suggest that functional inactivation of p53 by HTLV-1 Tax, whether by mutation or another mechanism, is not critical for initial tumor formation, but contributes to late-stage tumor progression.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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6/19. Primary peritoneal malignant mixed Mullerian tumors. A clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic study.

    BACKGROUND: Primary peritoneal malignant mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMTs) are rarely reported in the literature. methods: The clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical features of five cases of MMMT of female peritoneum were analyzed. The tumors were also investigated for expression of hormone receptors, specific BRCA-1 mutations, and clonality. RESULTS: The patients' ages ranged from 33 to 67 years. They presented with abdominal pain or mass. One case of peritoneal MMMT was associated with a synchronous endometrial carcinoma whereas another case was detected 2 years after the diagnosis of a primary adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube. One patient died 1 month after diagnosis whereas 2 patients died with disease within 1 year. Both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements are present in all the tumors. Squamous differentiation was noted in two cases. Heterologous elements, including chondroid, rhabodomyoblastic, and osteoid differentiation were detected in all tumors. Immunohistochemical studies confirm the biphasic differentiation with variable demonstration of neural and smooth muscle differentiation. All five MMMTs were negative for estrogen and progestogen receptors although the related endometrial and tubal carcinomas were positive. heteroduplex analysis used to screen for specific BRCA-1 mutations were negative in all five MMMTs. Clonality study of the two MMMTs found in association with endometrial carcinoma and tubal carcinoma was inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that primary peritoneal MMMTs were aggressive tumors with poor prognosis. The presence of synchronous or metachronous genital carcinomas suggests multifocal tumorigenesis from tissue of same embryologic origin. The lack of hormone receptor in these tumors indicates deviation from hormonal control. Specific BRCA-1 mutations found in ovarian carcinoma in Chinese patients could not be detected in our series.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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7/19. Chromosomal imbalances in gastric cancer. Correlation with histologic subtypes and tumor progression.

    dna copy number changes were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in 38 gastric carcinomas and correlated with tumor histologic type and progression. Gains of copy numbers were observed in all tumors, affecting all chromosomes except chromosome 16. The average number of copy number gains was 7 (range, 1-13), most frequently located on chromosomes 11, 12, 15, 17, and 20 in 45% to 97% of tumors. High-level amplifications were found on chromosomes 12, 15, 17, and 20; the latter was affected most frequently (66%). Loss of dna copy numbers was detected in 14 tumors affecting 7 chromosomes. No statistically significant differences in the frequency and pattern of chromosomal imbalances were observed in tumor histologic type (Lauren classification) and grade of differentiation, as well as the prognostic parameters depth of invasion (pT) and lymph node involvement (pN). Our results indicate that in gastric cancer there is no specific recurrent pattern of dna aberrations to be correlated with tumor histologic type or stage. However, CGH analysis could reveal new, recurrent genetic changes in gastric cancer affecting chromosomes sites that harbor genes known to participate in tumorigenesis and progression of several human malignant neoplasms.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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8/19. Sequential changes of the DMBT1 expression and location in normal lung tissue and lung carcinomas.

    Deleted in Malignant brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) at chromosome region 10q25.3-q26.1 has been proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Recent studies on its expression in lung cancer have led to divergent results and have raised a controversial discussion. Moreover, DMBT1 has been implicated with epithelial protection in the respiratory tract. We thus wondered how a loss of its expression could be related to carcinogenesis in the lung. To address these issues, we investigated the DMBT1 expression and location in the normal lung and lung cancer. By reverse-transcription PCR, a down-regulation of the DMBT1 expression in lung cancer cell lines is commonly detected. Immunohistochemical studies in situ demonstrate that there are also low steady-state levels of DMBT1 in the normal respiratory epithelium. However, an up-regulation takes place in the tumor-flanking epithelium and upon respiratory inflammation. lung carcinomas show increased DMBT1 expression compared to that of undiseased lung tissue, but decreased DMBT1 levels compared to that of tumor-flanking and inflammatory tissue. A switch from a lumenal secretion to a secretion to the extracellular matrix takes place during lung carcinogenesis. Our data may resolve the controversial discussion on its expression in lung carcinomas. We hypothesize that the changes of the DMBT1 expression and location do reflect a time course that may point to possible mechanisms for its role in epithelial cancer.
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ranking = 0.30581365244168
keywords = carcinogenesis
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9/19. Genetic aberrations in gliomatosis cerebri support monoclonal tumorigenesis.

    Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare condition in which the brain is infiltrated by an exceptionally diffusely growing glial cell population involving at least 2 lobes, though often more extensive, sometimes even affecting infratentorial regions. The neoplastic proliferation may have a monoclonal origin, or alternatively, reflect progressive neoplastic change of an entire tissue field ("field cancerization"). The presence of an identical set of genetic aberrations throughout the lesion would point to monoclonality of the proliferation. In contrast, the finding of non-identical genetic changes in widely separated regions within the neoplasm would support the concept of field cancerization. In the present study, a unique autopsy case of gliomatosis was available to verify either one of these hypotheses. Tissue samples were randomly taken from 24 locations throughout the brain and used for genetic investigation. In all samples the histology showed an identical picture of slightly elongated astrocytic cells, typical for gliomatosis. TP53 exon 5-8 mutation analysis was performed on all samples. genome-wide screening for chromosomal aberrations was accomplished by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In addition, loss of heterozygosity analysis for polymorphic markers on chromosomal regions of the 2 most frequently observed dna deletions was carried out. The most widespread genetic aberration was mutation of exon 7 of TP53, which was detected in 20 of 24 samples. Bidirectional sequencing revealed a mutation in codon 234 (TAC234TGC), resulting in an amino acid substitution Tyr-Cys. CGH analysis revealed losses on 2q11-q31 in 13 of 24 samples and losses on 19q13-qter in 10 of 24 samples from both left and right hemispheres. Allelic imbalances for markers on 2q (2q14.3 and 2q22.1) and 19q (both 19q13.2) were demonstrated in 10 of 24 and 18 of 24 samples, respectively. Other widespread chromosomal aberrations included losses on 3q13-qter and 16q22-qter and gains on 7q22-qter. The wide distribution of a particular set of genetic aberrations in this case supports the concept of monoclonal tumor proliferation. The results point to involvement of TP53 mutation in the tumorigenesis of gliomatosis cerebri.
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ranking = 5
keywords = tumorigenesis
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10/19. meningioma showing VHL gene inactivation in a patient with von hippel-lindau disease.

    The genetic mechanism of the tumorigenesis of meningioma in conjunction with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is unclear. The authors present a case of VHL disease associated with a posterior fossa meningioma and with multiple cerebellar hemangioblastomas. A germline mutation of the VHL gene and loss of heterozygosity on the VHL gene locus in 3p were detected in the meningioma. Tumorigenesis of a meningioma associated with VHL disease could be caused by inactivation of both alleles of the VHL gene.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tumorigenesis
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