Cases reported "Diseases in Twins"

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1/86. Iatrogenic monoamniotic twin gestation with progressive twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: Intentional puncture of the membrane has been reported to be a promising new method for the management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. CASE REPORT: Treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome with serial amniocenteses resulted in unintentional puncture of the dividing membrane at 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal growth discordance increased, and twin-twin transfusion did not improve following the puncture. Intrauterine death of both fetuses at 27 weeks of gestation occurred. CONCLUSION: Amniotic septostomy for the treatment of twin-twin transfusion syndrome should be performed with serious consideration.
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keywords = death
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2/86. Rapid development of hydrops fetalis in the donor twin following death of the recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Intrauterine death of one fetus in monochorionic twinning is associated with high rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the surviving fetus. Subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the donor twin after fetal demise of the recipient twin has been described in only two case reports and pathophysiology remains unclear. We report on a monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy complicated by severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Ultrasound examination at 20 weeks of gestation showed discrepant twins with oligohydramnios in the smaller twins' sac and polyhydramnios in that of the larger twin. Repeated amniocenteses permitted prolongation of the pregnancy. However, the recipient twin developed deteriorating hydrops fetalis and died at 28 weeks of gestation. After this event, subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the surviving donor twin could be observed, as well as an increase of amniotic fluid. An elective cesarean section was performed at 29 weeks of gestation. Initial hypoxemia could be effectively treated by high frequency oscillatory ventilation, surfactant therapy and inotropic support. The infant was discharged in good condition at the age of 2 months. Although rare, antenatal demise of the recipient twin in a monochorionic pregnancy can be associated with the subsequent development of hydrops fetalis in the surviving donor twin. We speculate that this phenomenon is due to ischemia-reperfusion injury of the previously poorly perfused twin.
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ranking = 5
keywords = death
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3/86. Psychopathologic problems in twins during childhood.

    Some psychopathologic problems occurring during childhood in twins are discussed from the point of view of mental health. On the basis of case history of twins affected by neurologic or psychiatric disorders some typical situations have been examined: (1) psychopathologic problems arising from perinatal death of the cotwin; (2) psychopathologic problems arising from the death of the cotwin during late childhood; (3) psychopathologic problems arising in the pair from organic or neuropsychaitric event in one of the twins; (4) psychopathologic problems of the twins due to disorders of personal identity and the interaction between the twins. The cases are analyzed from a psychodynamic point of view, in relation to the development of personality in the twins, and from a psychosocial point of view, in relation to the cultural stereotype of the twins during the socialization process and in the context of parental dynamics.
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ranking = 2
keywords = death
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4/86. The monoamniotic twin: a riskful event.

    The monoamniotic twin is at risk for high perinatal mortality because of cord accidents. There is no consensus in literature for the obstetric management in these cases. Contradictory results are reported according to fatal complications by cord accidents after 32 weeks gestation and safety of vaginal delivery. Recently two patients were admitted to our hospital with monoamniotic twin pregnancies and a fetal death in the third trimester. On the basis of these cases a review of the literature is presented and a case registry is recommended.
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keywords = death
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5/86. Acardiac acephalus: a case report and implications on expectant management.

    Acardiac acephalus is a rare occurrence resulting from extensive anastomoses between the vessels of the monochorionic twins which invariably leads to death of the "perfused" twin and an estimated 50% perinatal mortality rate in the "pump" twin, due mainly to premature delivery or congestive heart failure. Once diagnosis has been documented, blocking the vascular flows between the twins has been the principle goal of treatment with the assumption that a more favorable chance of survival in the pump twin can be achieved. However, hasty surgical intervention without a well-designed preoperative evaluation may result in unfavorable outcomes. A 21-year-old nullipara was found to carry an acardiac parabiotic twin in a monochorionic twin pregnancy at 28 weeks of gestation and was referred to us from a local clinic. Expectant management based on the close monitoring of the well-being of the healthy co-twin is presented in this article along with review of published works on the management of this rare condition.
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6/86. Chronic intrauterine meconium aspiration causes fetal lung infarcts, lung rupture, and meconium embolism.

    Three neonates with chronic intrauterine meconium aspiration are reported. All had distinctive subpleural plate-infarcts of the lungs caused by meconium-induced vasoconstriction of peripheral preacinar arteries. These vessels showed plexogenic arteriopathy with medionecrosis and obliterative hyaline sclerosis. Organized thrombi and systemic-pulmonary arterial anastomoses were numerous. The infarcts contained inspissated meconium with a granulomatous reaction.In one case, lung rupture occurred, causing meconiumthorax and meconium embolism to hilar lymphatics and lymph nodes; this suggests that particulate meconium may enter the circulation. This fetus had rubella and probable acute twin-twin transfusion following the intrauterine death of the co-twin. The cause of the hypoxia that led to intrauterine passage of meconium in the other cases is unknown. meconium-stained amniotic fluid was noted in only one case.
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keywords = death
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7/86. Does amniotomy influence the prognosis of babies in cases with severe chorioamnionitis? Report of a twin pregnancy with varying outcome.

    We report our experience in a woman with a twin pregnancy. The patient suffered severe escherichia coli chorioamnionitis and the outcomes were different between the two babies after birth. The first baby had only a mild infection, but the second suffered sepsis and subsequent perinatal death. These differences in outcome appeared to be due to amniotomy performed for the first baby after late labor stage I to augment uterus contractions. Removal of infectious amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity might thus have prevented the spread of the chorioamnionitis. E. coli sometimes causes severe infection during pregnancy and the perinatal period. In this case, a large number of enteropathogenic E. coli (serotype O-6) was cultured from blood, stool, pharyngeal swab, gastric juice and puncture fluid from the thoracic cavity of the second baby. O-6 is classified an enterotoxigenic strain mainly causing diarrhea because of endotoxin released from bacteria. O-6 has not hitherto been reported as a cause of severe infection in chorioamnionitis and perinatal sepsis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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8/86. Prenatal confirmation of periventricular leukomalacia in a surviving monochorionic-diamniotic twin after death of the other fetus: a case report.

    A 30-year-old woman was found to be carrying monochorionic-diamniotic twins at 7 weeks of gestation. The growth-retarded fetus died at 21 weeks of gestation. At 28 weeks of gestation, periventricular leukomalacia was detected in the brain of the surviving fetus by transvaginal ultrasonography. A female baby presenting with microcephaly was born at 39 weeks of gestation, and CT of the brain showed microcephaly and marked hydrocephalus. At 12 months of age, the surviving infant presented with severe physical growth retardation, and frequent episodes of clonic convulsions.
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ranking = 4
keywords = death
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9/86. Acardiac twinning where the pump twin dies in utero due to thrombosis in the umbilical arteries.

    A case of acardiac twinning where the pump twin dies in utero due to massive thrombotic occlusion of umbilical arteries at a site of umbilical cord stricture of the intact twin. In acardiac twinning the morbidity and mortality of the pump twin can be reduced by some invasive or medical approaches. The authors believe that in this interesting case the death of the pump twin could not be prevented by antenatal treatment.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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10/86. The ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure for a large fetal neck mass in a twin gestation.

    BACKGROUND: Large fetal neck masses can make it difficult or impossible to secure airways at birth, with associated risks of hypoxia, brain injury, and death. Based on a medline search from 1966 to June 1998, using the keywords EXIT procedure, placental support, twins, and neck mass, we report the first ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure performed in a twin gestation complicated by a large fetal neck mass. CASE: A giant fetal cervical mass was diagnosed in one fetus of a 20-week twin gestation by sonography and magnetic resonance imaging. At 35 weeks' gestation, the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure was performed successfully for delivery of the normal twin, followed by intrapartum airway access of the twin with the neck mass. CONCLUSION: Even in twin gestations, the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure is the delivery method of choice for fetuses with giant neck masses.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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