Cases reported "Diseases in Twins"

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1/21. Discordance for Cornelia de lange syndrome in twins.

    A male infant, the first-born of twins, with features of Cornealia de lange syndrome is described. His normal twin was discordnat for 3 of the 14 blood loci tested. chromosomes from the affected infant appeared normal. Though the aetiological basis for the Cornealia de lange syndrome remains obscure, most authorities accept genetic rather than environmental causation. The present findings of discordance for Cornelia de lange syndrome in twins support this view but do not clarify the mode of inheritance.
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2/21. Recognition of yersinia enterocolitica multiple strain infection in twin infants using PCR-based dna fingerprinting.

    AIMS: yersinia enterocolitica causes several syndromes in humans. The most common presentation is enterocolitis in children, presenting as fever and diarrhoea. A Y. enterocolitica multiple strain infection in twin infants was investigated. methods AND RESULTS: One isolate was recovered from one patient and two morphologically-different isolates were recovered from the other infant. Biochemically, all isolates were identified as Y. enterocolitica group. The genomic DNA from each strain was purified and dna fingerprinting was performed. The banding patterns observed for Y. enterocolitica isolates 2 and 3, from patients 1 and 2, respectively, were identical when comparing the presence or absence of major bands. However, Y. enterocolitica isolate 1, from patient 1, showed a distinctive banding pattern from isolates 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that one infant was colonized by more than one strain of Y. enterocolitica, demonstrating that multiple strains can colonize and invade a patient. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Recognition of multiple strain infections can be important in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of Y. enterocolitica infections, as well as in disease epidemiology. The technique described here offers a straightforward method for strain comparison.
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3/21. Identical twins discordant for ulcerative colitis with colon cancer.

    A 22-year-old patient with a 16-year history of ulcerative colitis who developed multifocal anaplastic colon cancer is presented. His identical twin, proven by blood type, HL-A, and fingerprint analyses, has been completely asymptomatic. This report suggests that ulcerative colitis results from a polygenic predisposition without full penetrance. Subsequent development of colon cancer seems more likely related to the inflammatory disease that an independent genetic determinant.
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4/21. Prenatal detection of fra(X)(q27.3) in female identical twins: reliability of low level cytogenetic prenatal expression in females.

    Recently, we detected fra(X)(q27.3) in amniocyte cultures from female identical twins. The pregnant woman did not exhibit fra(X)(q27.3) in whole blood cultures but was the sister of 2 affected brothers. DNA marker analyses showed that she was a carrier of FRAXA. amniotic fluid cultures (AFCs) from twins A and B exhibited the fragile X [fra(X)] chromosome, but the level of cytogenetic expression was very low in twin A's AFCs. DNA marker studies indicated both twins were carriers of FRAXA. Peripheral umbilical blood sample (PUBS) cultures exhibited fra(X)(q27.3) at a frequency of about 10% for both twins. dna fingerprinting indicated that the twins were identical, confirming the clinical impression, with a very thin separating amniotic membrane. To our knowledge, this is the only report of prenatal fra(X)(q27.3) detection in female identical twins, and the second report of identical twin detection [Rocchi et al., 1985]. We have diagnosed prenatally fra(X)(q27.3) in 5 female fetuses using AFCs. The average fra(X) frequency was 4% for these positive female fetuses with a range of 0.5% to 8.5%. Follow-up whole blood studies confirmed our original results at an average fra(X) frequency of 25%. In conclusion: 1. Low frequencies, perhaps 1 or 2%, or a few positive cells in AFCs, are likely to increase in magnitude when confirmed in whole blood cultures either pre- or postnatally. 2. It appears likely that the risk is low for false positive results in AFCs when low frequencies of fra(X)(q27.3) are encountered.
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5/21. dna fingerprinting: the utilization of minisatellite probes to detect a somatic mutation in the proteus syndrome.

    Syndromes with localized or segmental abnormalities have been proposed to be the result of a somatic mutation leading to the presence of somatic mosaicism in the tissue. The proteus syndrome, with its hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly and exostoses, has features which would indicate that the phenotype results from such events. The success of utilizing DNA fingerprint probes to detect somatic mutations in cancer raised the possibility that a similar approach might be successful in an investigation of two patients with the proteus syndrome. Single band differences were detected with the probe 33.6 in a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for Proteus and in a comparison of tissue from normal and affected areas in another patient. These findings would appear to confirm the hypothesis that the proteus syndrome results from a somatic mutation. Furthermore, the results indicate that dna fingerprinting may offer a valuable technique for identifying probes for investigations of similar syndromes.
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ranking = 472.95371532417
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6/21. Skewed X inactivation in a female MZ twin results in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    One of female MZ twins presented with muscular dystrophy. physical examination, creatine phosphokinase levels, and muscle biopsy were consistent with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, because of her sex she was diagnosed as having limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. With cDNA probes to the DMD gene, a gene deletion was detected in the twins and their mother. The de novo mutation which arose in the mother was shown by novel junction fragments generated by HindIII, PstI, or TaqI when probed with cDNA8. Additional evidence of a large gene deletion was given by novel SfiI junction fragments detected by probes p20, J-Bir, and J-66 on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Immunoblot analysis of muscle from the affected twin showed dystrophin of normal size but of reduced amount. Immunofluorescent visualization of dystrophin revealed foci of dystrophin-positive fibers adjacent to foci of dystrophin-negative fibers. These data indicate that the affected twin is a manifesting carrier of an abnormal DMD gene, her myopathy being a direct result of underexpression of dystrophin. cytogenetic analysis revealed normal karyotypes, eliminating the possibility of a translocation affecting DMD gene function. Both linkage analysis and DNA fingerprint analysis revealed that each twin has two different X chromosomes, eliminating the possibility of uniparental disomy as a mechanism for DMD expression. On the basis of methylation differences of the paternal and maternal X chromosomes in these MZ twins, we propose uneven lyonization (x chromosome inactivation) as the underlying mechanism for disease expression in the affected female.
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keywords = fingerprint
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7/21. Identical twins discordant for Kallmann's syndrome.

    A 20 year old male patient presented with lack of sexual development. On examination he was eunuchoidal and hypogonadal, and olfactory function testing showed he was anosmic. Biochemical investigations proved he was hypogonadotrophic. Kallmann's syndrome was therefore diagnosed. His appearance was very different from his alleged identical twin who had undergone a normal puberty and had normal plasma testosterone and gonadotrophin levels. However, the twin was hyposmic. Genetic fingerprinting confirmed the twins were identical. Why Kallman's syndrome was incompletely expressed in one of them is unexplained. The parents and a normally menstruating sister had normal olfactory function.
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8/21. Recurrent graft failure following syngeneic bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anaemia.

    We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with drug-induced aplastic anaemia with a healthy monozygotic twin. Proof of monozygosity was confirmed by studies using the hypervariable minisatellite probe to obtain identical DNA fingerprints in donor and recipient. in vitro co-culture studies performed showed no evidence of a recipient-derived cellular or humoral inhibitor of donor haemopoiesis. Despite this, there was no engraftment following simple marrow infusion without preconditioning. A second syngeneic transplant following high dose cyclophosphamide therapy produced trilineage engraftment but severe thrombocytopenia developed at 3 months, followed later by pancytopenia with generalized marrow failure. Following a third syngeneic transplant with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation there was good initial engraftment but graft failure occurred at 14 weeks. A fourth transplant using Campath 1G as preconditioning resulted in no engraftment and the patient died of septicaemia 8 weeks following her fourth transplant. We suggest that the cause of the recurrent aplastic anaemia in this case was a defect of marrow stroma as neither an inhibitor of donor haemopoiesis nor an intrinsic defect of donor stem cell growth could be demonstrated in vitro.
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keywords = fingerprint
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9/21. Discordant expression of the G syndrome in monozygotic twins.

    We present clinical manifestations of monozygotic male twins with different degrees of expression of the G syndrome. Monozygosity was confirmed using DNA mini-satellite "fingerprint" analysis. The findings in these twins suggest that expression of the G syndrome can be strongly influenced by the prenatal developmental environment.
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keywords = fingerprint
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10/21. Limb pterygium syndromes: a review and report of eleven patients.

    Conditions with limb pterygia and congenital contractures were reviewed as part of a study of over 350 infants with arthrogryposis. Emphasis was placed on inheritance and variability of distinct pterygium conditions. Eleven patients with limb pterygia were recognized in our study and are described here. Seven of the 350 patients with congenital contractures had the autosomal recessively inherited multiple pterygium syndrome (patients 1-7). Three of the seven are sibs, a fourth was born to consanguineous parents, and three were chance isolated cases. These seven had multiple joint webs, unusual finger contractures, syndactyly, rocker bottom feet, ptosis, antimongoloid slant of palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, highly arched palate, scoliosis, and short stature. There is intrafamilial variability. Three patients from one family had a lethal multiple pterygium syndrome. Two were monozygotic twins. They had webbing and contractures of the elbows, knees, neck, and fingers, calcaneovalgus deformity of the feet, and an unusual facial appearance: hypertelorism, flat nose, antimongoloid slant of palpebral fissures, apparently low-set ears. One had a cleft palate. Internal malformations included: bilateral pulmonary hypoplasia, small heart, absence of the appendix, and attenuation of the ascending and transverse colon. One sporadic case of lethal popliteal pterygium with facial clefts was studied. Multiple anomalies included: ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypoplasia of nasal cartilages, frenula, clefts into the oropharynx lateral to the mouth, apparently low-set ears with slit-like canals, large popliteal pterygia, syndactyly with fusion of all digits in hands and feet, and hypoplastic labia.
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