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1/134. Idiopathic hypersomnia in an aircrew member.

    In aviation, it is essential that all aircrew members remain alert and contribute, by their observations and actions, to flight safety. Especially in helicopter operations, crewmembers riding in the rear of the aircraft play an integral role in many aspects of flight, such as take-offs, landings, turns, formation flights, hazard avoidance, situational awareness, military operations, and crew coordination. We present the case of a helicopter crew chief with idiopathic hypersomnia, briefly review the disorder, and give the recent U.S. military aviation experience with sleep disorders. Flight surgeons and aeromedical examiners should be active in considering and diagnosing sleep-related disorders as the aviator or crewmember may not be aware of the disease or may not volunteer the history. A directed history is important in making the diagnosis, as are reports from family and other aircrew members. Referral to a sleep specialist is required in performing objective sleep studies, establishing the diagnosis, recommending treatment, and providing a prognosis. Many sleep disorders are treatable and aeromedically waiverable. ( info)

2/134. Two cases of HLA-DR2-negative hypersomnia manifesting sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods in the multiple sleep latency test.

    We encountered two cases expressing excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and manifesting two or more sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods in the multiple sleep latency test. Unbearable daytime sleepiness occurred abruptly, which usually led to short-lasting naps, after which the patients felt refreshed. The EDS was successfully reduced by treatment with methylphenidate. In spite of these features similar to narcolepsy, these cases of REM hypersomnia did not present cataplexy or other auxiliary symptoms of narcolepsy, and, furthermore, the class-II human leukocyte antigen DR2 appeared to be negative. ( info)

3/134. Hypersomnia following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for snoring.

    This report describes three cases who underwent uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for severe snoring and who subsequently developed progressive excessive daytime sleepiness. All three cases were shown to have sleep fragmentation as a result of non-apnoeic episodic upper airway narrowing. These cases raise the possibility that increased upper airway resistance during sleep may be exacerbated or even caused by uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Ideally, sleep-disordered breathing should be carefully excluded before this surgery is offered as treatment for severe snoring. ( info)

4/134. Hypersomnia in Wilson's disease: an unusual symptom in an unusual case.

    Wilson's disease (WD) shows a wide heterogeneity in symptoms. In this case report we present hypersomnia as a symptom of WD. The male patient's complaints as fatigue, decreased level of concentration, and highly increased demand of sleeping started at his age of 21 years. No abnormality was found at physical examination. A moderate elevation in liver function tests was found, but all the other laboratory findings were within the normal range. The marked hypersomnia was verified by 24-h cassette EEG polisomnographic monitoring. No abnormality was found at physical examination. EEG, brain CT and MRI were normal. Neither toxic nor infectious disease was detectable. The diagnosis of WD was based on decreased coeruloplasmin level, increased baseline and forced urinary excretion of copper, and decreased level of serum copper. Kayser-Fleischer ring was not detectable. D-penicillamine (DPA) was introduced. At 8-10 months after the initiation of the therapy the patient's complaints gradually resolved. The control sleep record 14 months after the initiation of the DPA therapy was normal. Five years later the patient is currently on penicillamine treatment and he is free of any symptom. ( info)

5/134. kleine-levin syndrome and psychosis: observation from an unusual case.

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the possible pathologic relation between kleine-levin syndrome (KLS) and mood disorders. BACKGROUND: A 28-year-old man with a remote history of KLS had the sudden onset of a manic episode with psychotic features after the end of hypersomnolence. METHOD: The patient received an extensive laboratory examination, including single photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Single photon emission computed tomography showed decreased tracer perfusion in the basal ganglion, hypothalamus, and right frontotemporal region. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion in the pineal region. CONCLUSIONS: Hypothalamic dysfunction has been described in KLS and mood disorders, but pineal gland dysfunction has been mentioned only rarely. The clinical and neuroimaging findings suggest the need for further study of KLS. ( info)

6/134. Influence of chronic barbiturate administration on sleep apnea after hypersomnia presentation: case study.

    When sleepiness is excessive, undesirable, inappropriate or unexplained, it often indicates a clinical disorder that is generically termed hypersomnia. One of the leading causes of hypersomnia is sleep apnea. We present the case of a 44-year-old woman with a history of bipolar spectrum disorder and epilepsy who initially showed evidence of hypersomnia. The hypersomnia settled with changes to her medication, but the patient was subsequently found to have severe obstructive sleep apnea. The relation between the patient's medication and sleep apnea is discussed, and the possible respiratory-suppressant effects of chronic barbiturate treatment are considered. The role of other evoking factors within the context of this case and the mechanisms by which drug interactions and psychotropic treatment may worsen, obscure or perpetuate sleep apnea are also examined. ( info)

7/134. Total recovery after bilateral paramedian thalamic infarct.

    Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts are characterised initially by the association of acute vigilance disorders and vertical gaze palsy, followed by persisting dementia with severe mnemic disturbance, global aspontaneity and apathy. We describe a patient with a dramatic neuropsychological recovery, confirmed by testing examination and completed by a cerebral metabolism study. The pathophysiology of this type of cognitive deficit is discussed. ( info)

8/134. Nucleus of the tractus solitarius metastasis: relationship to respiratory arrest?

    BACKGROUND: A 52-year-old woman with metastases in brain and bone had clinical and radiological response to therapy but died about 10 weeks after diagnosis. General autopsy failed to identify a primary neoplasm or an anatomic cause of death. Investigation of sudden respiratory cessation was a consideration when undertaking an anatomic study of the brain. methods: review of patient records and careful examination of the brain following autopsy were carried out. RESULTS: The patient had terminal episodes of hypersomnia but episodes of sleep apnea were not observed. She received no respiratory support and no respiratory difficulties were recorded until she was pronounced dead at 7 a.m. autopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma in a pattern suggestive of a primary pulmonary neoplasm, including multiple cerebral metastases, although no significant pulmonary lesions of any type were found. A 0.2 cm metastatic adenocarcinoma was found in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). No other tumor was present in the brain stem. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral destruction of the NTS in the medulla would have severely disturbed the most critical point of convergence of autonomic and voluntary respiratory control and of cardiocirculatory reflexes in the central autonomic network. It is postulated that this caused respiratory arrest during a state transition from sleeping to waking. Few metastases to the medulla are reported, most are relatively large, and several have caused respiratory symptoms before death. The very small metastasis in our patient could be the direct anatomic cause of death, and as such it is an unusual complication of metastatic disease of which clinicians should be aware. It is speculated that dysfunction of direct NTS connections to the pons or of connections passing close to the metastatic deposit resulted in terminal hypersomnia. ( info)

9/134. Hypersomnia with periodic breathing (an acromegalic Pickwickian).

    The syndromes of Pickwickian, Ondine's curse, and primary alveolar hypoventilation are respiratory disorders manifesting increased sleepiness and irregular respiratory rhythms. These disorders are currently grouped as hypersomnia with periodic breathing (HPB). Polygraphic techniques have lead to a reasonable hypothesis as to the pathophysiology of the multiple variants of HPB. Discernible causes of HPB have been attributed to both central and peripheral factors. Peripheral factors encompass those conditions relating to upper airway obstruction. An acromegalic person suffering the HPB syndrome secondary to laryngeal stenosis is described. ( info)

10/134. narcolepsy and other non-SAS hypersomnia in sleep breathing disorders clinic.

    Four of the 708 snorers (0.56%), referred to our sleep breathing disorders clinic for the past 2 years were diagnosed as having narcolepsy-cataplexy. Detecting HLA DRB1*1501/DQB1*0602 positive was informative for differentiating genuine narcolepsy from non-sleep apnea syndrome (non-SAS) hypersomnia in our clinic. A non-SAS obese boy, diagnosed as having essential hypersomnia syndrome, was found to be HLA DRB1*1502/DQB1*0601 positive. His hypocretin concentration was 206 pg/mL in the cerebrospinal fluid. ( info)
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