Cases reported "Diverticulum, Esophageal"

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1/52. Epiphrenic diverticulum composed of airway components attributed to a bronchopulmonary-foregut malformation: report of a case.

    Bronchopulmonary-foregut malformation (BPFM), defined originally as pulmonary sequestration with or without communication to the esophagus, has been acknowledged to include congenital foregut diverticula. We present herein the case of a 43-year-old woman with a 9-year history of dysphagia, in whom a barium meal examination demonstrated a 2.5-cm epiphrenic diverticulum and several fistulae. A laparotomy was performed and the lower esophagus without communication to the lung was pulled down and resected, followed by an esophagogastrostomy carried out with fundopexy. Since her operation, the patient has been free of symptoms. Histologically, the diverticulum was observed to be lined by stratified squamous cells, but its shape was formed by mural cartilage, smooth muscle cells, and three ciliated-cell cysts. The dysphagia was considered to have been derived from the kinked esophagus created by the rigid diverticulum, being the possible developmental arrest of a supernumerary lung bud. These findings indicate that this case may involve BPFM in the broad sense. Although several cases of bronchogenic cysts located beneath or across the diaphragm have been reported as a subgroup of BPFM, congenital epiphrenic diverticula has rarely been described.
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2/52. Dysphagia in oesophageal intramural pseudo-diverticulosis: fibrosis, dysmotility or web?

    We describe two cases of oesophageal intramural pseudo-diverticulosis associated with a cervical oesophageal web presenting as intermittent dysphagia. In both cases, disruption of the web endoscopically resulted in lasting relief from symptoms. This observation, together with a review of the literature written during the past 39 years, suggests that oesophageal web formation may be under-reported in this condition and may be more important than either dysmotility or submucosal fibrosis and stricturing in the aetiology of the dysphagia seen in these patients. All patients with a radiological diagnosis of oesophageal intramural pseudo-diverticulosis should have an endoscopic examination which may be both diagnostic and potentially therapeutic.
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3/52. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis associated with esophageal perforation.

    We report a rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with lower esophageal stricture which perforated into the peritoneal cavity after the patient vomited. A 61-year-old man was admitted with severe chest and epigastric pain after dysphagia and vomiting. Under a diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal perforation, laparotomy was performed. The anterior wall of the abdominal esophagus was found to have ruptured, and proximal gastrectomy with abdominal esophagectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with esophageal stricture distal to the site of rupture, and postoperative endoscopy showed diffuse pseudodiverticulosis in the remaining esophagus. The patient is free of symptoms 5 years after the surgery. This case suggests that careful treatment may be indicated in patients with esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with stricture and elevated intraluminal pressure, to minimize the possibility of severe complications such as esophageal perforation.
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4/52. Esophageal hypermotility associated with intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Primary esophageal disease or epiphenomena?

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a very rare disease of unclear etiology. The clinical picture is characterized by progressive dysphagia. Because of its frequent association with alcohol abuse and subsequent weight loss, it must be differentiated reliably from esophageal carcinoma. The diagnosis is established by the characteristic detection of multiple intramural contrast accumulations in the barium esophagogram. Additional endoscopic and endosonographic confirmation and histological examination are required to exclude a malignant tumor. Moreover, associated diseases are almost always present and should also be diagnosed by pH-metry, cytology, and esophageal manometry. Good and long-lasting therapeutic success can be achieved by bouginage of the stenosis with concomitant treatment of the associated esophageal diseases. Based on two case reports of patients with this disease, we discuss the unusual association with esophageal hypermotility as well as the symptoms, clinical course, therapy, and pathogenesis of the disease.
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5/52. Laparoscopic approach for esophageal achalasia with epiphrenic diverticulum.

    We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with a 10-year history of dysphagia, regurgitation, cough, and 10-kg weight loss caused by an epiphrenic diverticulum associated with esophageal achalasia managed with a laparoscopic approach. A preoperative barium swallow showed a dilated sigmoid esophagus with a 6-cm epiphrenic diverticulum. Esophageal manometry confirmed the absence of peristalsis in the esophageal body. We performed a laparoscopic diverticulectomy and a 7-cm distal esophageal myotomy with a Dor fundoplication. The postoperative course was uneventful. On the third postoperative day a barium swallow showed no leak, and the patient started oral intake. She was discharged home 5 days after the operation free of symptoms and tolerating a soft diet. Sixteen months after surgery, she was asymptomatic and had gained 8 kg. A barium swallow showed a normal-size esophagus with regular emptying. We reaffirm the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the laparoscopic diverticulectomy and distal myotomy with Dor fundoplication to manage epiphrenic diverticula resulting from esophageal achalasia.
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6/52. Video-assisted resection of pulsative midesophagus diverticula.

    BACKGROUND: Pulsative diverticula located in the midesophagus occur rarely. Surgical treatment is indicated for symptomatic diverticula. This study evaluated a new minimally invasive method of treatment. methods: Three women, ages 69 to 73 years, underwent resections of diverticula via a thoracoscopic access. No major complications were observed. Preoperative symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, aspiration, loss of weight, and retrosternal pain were not reported at follow-up assessment 3 to 60 months after surgery. The patients were highly satisfied with the functional results. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, minimally invasive treatment of midesophagus diverticula by thoracoscopic resections may be performed with excellent outcome.
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7/52. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis: review of symptoms including upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIP) is a rare condition manifested by multiple, flask-shaped outpouchings in the wall of the esophagus, which represent dilated excretory ducts of esophageal mucous glands. STUDY: Five patients with EIP were evaluated with regard to symptoms and concomitant diseases, as well as endoscopic, radiologic, and manometric findings. RESULTS: Primary clinical symptoms reported by the five patients (three men and two women; age range, 59-72 years) were increasing dysphagia ( n = 3), upper gastrointestinal bleeding ( n = 1), and no symptoms ( n = 1). Concomitant diseases were chronic alcoholism ( n = 3), diabetes mellitus ( n = 1), and reflux esophagitis ( n = 1). Primary diagnosis was made endoscopically in all cases. Endoscopic findings other than pseudodiverticula were esophageal webs ( n = 2) and proximal esophageal stenoses ( n = 4). The typical radiologic findings were detectable in two patients, pathologic manometric findings were seen in only one patient. The authors treated the concomitant diseases and performed endoscopic dilatations of esophageal stenoses. One case with initial bleeding from an associated web is described in detail. According to our knowledge, this is the first publication of a case of EIP-associated bleeding. CONCLUSION: Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a differential diagnosis in cases of dysphagia and/or esophageal strictures if no other causes are found. The authors think that endoscopy is the method of choice for establishing the diagnosis.
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8/52. Cricopharyngeus myotomy as the only treatment for zenker diverticulum.

    Cricopharyngeal dysfunction, one of the most common causes of pharyngeal dysphagia, exhibits a variety of manifestations, one of which is zenker diverticulum. This paper examines the physiology of swallowing, pathophysiology of its aberrations, and various methods of treating zenker diverticulum. It is our purpose to emphasize cricopharyngeus (CP) myotomy as the only needed treatment for this diverticulum. Even in its advanced stages, excision of the diverticulum is a needless surgical exercise. Seven cases of zenker diverticulum are reported in elderly patients; one of them had an excision of the diverticulum prior to presentation. Some were either completely obstructed or aspirating on esophagram. Cricopharyngeus myotomy, the only treatment provided, proved to be safe and effective without morbidity or fatalities. patients' ability to eat orally was restored on the night of or the morning after surgery. No Levin tube is necessary and there is no risk of suture line leakage after the conventional diverticulectomy and CP myotomy. Hospital stay is greatly reduced and there is no risk of structure formation. In contrast to endoscopic division of CP muscle, there is no risk of mediastinitis because there is no break through the mucosa.
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9/52. Intramural pseudodiverticulosis of the esophagus.

    Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is a rare condition seen in the elderly, with a male-to-female ratio of 3:2. Multiple small outpouchings occur in the submucosa of the esophageal wall, caused by dilation of the excretory ducts of the mucus glands. This disorder may be associated with gastroesophageal reflux, motility disorders, candidiasis, or other conditions. inflammation, resulting in periductal fibrosis and compression of the duct orifices, may be a causative factor. Usually, EPID presents with progressive dysphagia related to esophageal stenosis or strictures in the great majority of patients. Radiologic examination is more sensitive than endoscopy in detecting these tiny saccular diverticula in the esophageal wall. They often are noted to disappear after esophageal dilation, but may persist asymptomatically in some patients. We report two cases of dysphagia associated with reflux and candida infection in elderly patients. The diagnosis of EIPD was made, and both patients were treated successfully. A review of the available literature suggests that EIPD may be missed easily because of subtle endoscopic and radiologic changes, but that once diagnosed, conservative management leads to satisfactory control of the symptoms.
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10/52. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (diffuse type).

    A rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) in a 65-year-old woman with intermittent dysphagia is reported. An upper gastrointestinal series revealed multiple pseudodiverticula, which had tiny flask-shaped outpouchings with a narrow neck extending outward from the upper to the lower thoracic esophageal wall. In particular, the occurrence of the pseudodiverticula was coincident with a narrowed segment of inflamed esophagus. The length of the esophagus involved was approximately 15 cm. Endoscopic findings included mild stricture and chronic inflammation of the mucosa. biopsy specimens showed active chronic esophagitis with bacterial and candida superinfection, but no evidence of neoplasm. Cellular local immune reactions, as a consequence of chronic inflammation, and possibly abnormal motor activity in the narrowed esophagus, may explain the etiological agent or may be possible secondary factors that caused the EIPD.
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