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1/32. Molecular identification and epidemiological tracing of pasteurella multocida meningitis in a baby.

    We report a case of pasteurella multocida meningitis in a 1-month-old baby exposed to close contact with two dogs and a cat but without any known history of injury by these animals. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the isolate from the baby allowed identification at the subspecies level and pointed to the cat as a possible source of infection. molecular typing of Pasteurella isolates from the animals, from the baby, and from unrelated animals clearly confirmed that the cat harbored the same P. multocida subsp. septica strain on its tonsils as the one isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of the baby. This case stresses the necessity of informing susceptible hosts at risk of contracting zoonotic agents about some basic hygiene rules when keeping pets. In addition, this study illustrates the usefulness of molecular methods for identification and epidemiological tracing of Pasteurella isolates.
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2/32. 'Battered pets': munchausen syndrome by proxy (factitious illness by proxy).

    Nine cases of suspected munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP), involving pets as proxies, were identified among 448 cases of non-accidental injury to small animals. These cases, recorded by a random sample of small animal practitioners in the UK, demonstrated several combinations of features, including attention-seeking behaviour by the owner, real and apparently factitious clinical signs, deliberate injury, markedly abnormal biochemical profiles, serial incidents, interference with surgical sites, recovery after separation from the owner, and 'veterinarian-shopping' by the owner. All of these features are consistent with those identified in the well documented MSBP in which children are the victims. Furthermore, one of the cases involved serial attempts at poisoning other animals and a child.
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3/32. Identification of isolates of streptococcus canis infecting humans.

    During a survey of Group G and C streptococcal infections of humans two epidemiologically unrelated Group G streptococcal isolates were identified, one from a case of bacteremia and one from a wound infection. These isolates were atypical among this sample in that the emm gene could not be amplified from them by PCR. Biochemical characterization identified the isolates as streptococcus canis, an organism normally associated with animal hosts. The biochemical identification was confirmed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both isolates and comparison with sequences of the S. canis type strain and other related streptococci of animals and humans. Comparative sequencing of fragments of two other housekeeping genes, sodA and mutS, confirmed that the isolates are most closely related to S. canis. The identification of two isolates of S. canis from a relatively small sample set suggests that the practice of identifying streptococci only by the Lancefield serological group may result in underestimation of the presence of S. canis in the human population.
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4/32. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 2000.

    During 2000, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,364 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 5 cases in human beings to the Centers for disease Control and Prevention, an increase of 4.3% from 7,067 cases in nonhuman animals reported in 1999. Ninety-three percent (6,855 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.9% (509 cases) were in domestic species (compared wth 91.5% in wild animals and 8.5% in domestic species in 1999). Compared with cases reported in 1999, the number of cases reported in 2000 increased among bats, dogs, foxes, skunks, and sheep/goats and decreased among cats, cattle, horses/mules, raccoons, and swine. The relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: raccoons (37.7%; 2,778 cases), skunks (30.2%; 2,223), bats (16.8%; 1,240), foxes (6.2%; 453), cats (3.4%; 249), dogs (1.6%; 114), and cattle (1.1%; 83). Ten of the 19 states where the raccoon-associated variant of the rabies virus has been enzootic reported increases in the numbers of cases of rabies during 2000. Among those states that have engaged in extensive wildlife rabies control programs, no cases of rabies associated with the epizootic of rabies in raccoons (or in any other terrestrial species) were reported in ohio, compared with 6 cases reported in 1999. No rabies cases associated with the dog/coyote variant (compared with 10 cases in 1999, including 5 in dogs) were reported in texas, and cases associated with the gray fox variant of the virus decreased (58 cases in 2000, including 38 among foxes). Reports of rabid skunks exceeded those of rabid raccoons in massachusetts and rhode island, states with enzootic raccoon rabies, for the fourth consecutive year. Nationally, the number of rabies cases in skunks increased by 7.1% from that reported in 1999. The greatest numerical increase in rabid skunks (550 cases in 2000, compared with 192 in 1999) was reported in texas. The number of cases of rabies reported in bats (1,240) during 2000 increased 25.4% over the number reported during 1999 (989) and represented the greatest contribution (16.8% of the total number of rabid animals) ever recorded for this group of mammals. Cases of rabies reported in cattle (83) and cats (249) decreased by 38.5% and 10.4%, respectively, whereas cases in dogs (114) increased by 2.7% over those reported in 1999. Reported cases of rabies among horses and mules declined 20% from 65 cases in 1999 to 52 cases in 2000. Four indigenously acquired cases of rabies reported in human beings were caused by variants of the rabies virus associated with bats. One case of human rabies acquired outside the united states that resulted from a dog bite was caused by the canine variant of the rabies virus.
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5/32. Identification of genotypes of cryptosporidium parvum isolates from a patient and a dog in japan.

    cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is recognized as a significant pathogen in humans and animals, primarily as a cause of diarrheal illness. Recent genetic and biological studies indicate that C. parvum is not a single species but composed of genetically distinct multiple genotypes. Thus, it is valuable to distinguish between genotypes in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in humans and animals. Although C. parvum has been detected in humans and animals in japan, the genotype of isolates remains unclear because identification has been performed only by conventional microscopy. We report herein the genotypes of C. parvum isolates distinguished by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic method. C. parvum isolates, originally obtained from a patient and a pet dog, were found to have cattle and dog genotypes, respectively.
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6/32. Short report: concurrent rocky mountain spotted fever in a dog and its owner.

    A sequential occurrence of rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF) in a dog and its owner is described. diagnosis of RMSF in the animal guided subsequent testing for and diagnosis of the same disease in the human patient. Previous reports of concurrent RMSF in dogs and their owners are reviewed, and the epidemiologic significance of this occurrence is discussed.
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7/32. Radiographic, computed tomographic and histopathologic appearance of a presumed spinal chordoma in a dog.

    A 4-year-old Labrador Retriever presented for urinary incontinence and constipation of 2 weeks duration. There was a tender abdomen, lumbar pain and conscious proprioceptive deficits in both pelvic limbs. Depressed pelvic limb reflexes were present consistent with a lower motor neuron lesion. In radiographs of the lumbar spine there was narrowing of the intervertebral disc space at L5-L6 with irregular, multifocal areas of mineralized opacities dorsal to the intervertebral disc space, presumably within the vertebral canal. On computed tomography, an intramedullary, partially mineralized mass was identified in the spinal cord at the level of caudal L5 through cranial L6. At necropsy there was a four-centimeter enlarged, irregular segment of spinal cord at the level of L5-L6. When sectioned, the spinal cord bad a mineralized texture. Histologically there were variable sized cells that were stellate in appearance with vacuolated cytoplasm (physaliferous cells) and mucinous background consistent with a chordoma. chordoma is a rare, skeletal neoplasm that originates from mesoderm-derived notochord and has been reported in humans and animals. Extraskeletal development of a chordoma within the spinal cord is a rare manifestation of this neoplasm. However, based on other reports in dogs, solitary extraskeletal locations of chordomas may be the typical expression of this neoplasm in the dog. Differentiation of similar histologically appearing tumors, such as a parachordoma or myxoid chondrosarcoma, will require immunohistochemical characterization of these tumors in veterinary patients.
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8/32. pneumonectomy: four case studies and a comparative review.

    pneumonectomy is the resection of all lung lobes in either the left or right lung field. The surgical technique and postoperative results of pneumonectomy for clinical disease have not been reported in companion animals. pneumonectomy was performed in three dogs and one cat to treat pulmonary or pleural disease, and the postoperative outcome compared with the complications and results reported in the human literature. One dog died immediately postoperatively due to suspected respiratory insufficiency and the remaining three animals survived the perioperative period. postoperative complications were reported in two animals. Cardiac complications occurred in the cat, with perioperative arrhythmias and progressive congestive heart failure. Gastrointestinal complications were diagnosed in one dog, with mediastinal shift and oesophageal dysfunction. Left- and right-sided pneumonectomy is feasible in companion animals, and the postoperative outcome and complications encountered in this series were similar to those reported in humans.
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9/32. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 1990.

    In 1990, the united states and its territories reported 4,881 cases of rabies in animals to the Centers for disease Control, a 1.5% increase from 1989. Of these, 553 were domestic animals, 4,327 were wild animals, and one was a human being. pennsylvania reported the highest number (611) of rabies cases in animals in 1990. For the first time since surveillance of rabies in wild animals was begun in the 1950s, the number of cases of rabies in raccoons exceeded that in skunks. Particularly large increases of cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals were reported in new jersey (469 cases in 1990 compared with 50 cases in 1989, an increase of 838% from 1989) and new york (242 cases in 1990 compared with 54 cases in 1989, an increase of 348%). The 1,821 cases of rabies in raccoons represented a 17.9% increase over those reported in 1989 and 24.5% over those in 1988. This increase was largely attributable to the larger number of rabid raccoons in new jersey and new york. Other states that reported an increased number of rabies cases in animals in 1990 included utah (77.8%), louisiana (64.7%), north dakota (60.3%), arizona (28.6%), oklahoma (27.5%), delaware (22.2%), and maryland (20.6%). Thirty states reported a decrease in the number of cases of rabies in animals.
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10/32. Acupuncture for gastrointestinal disorders.

    Acupuncture is best known for its application to various musculoskeletal pain-producing diseases. Acupuncture is, however, used for a large variety of internal medical diseases in humans and other animals. This chapter reviews some of the published literature on the use of acupuncture in gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, describes acupuncture points useful for a variety of GI diseases, briefly reviews how traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treats GI disease, and gives some case examples of how acupuncture can be used in GI diseases.
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