Cases reported "Drowning"

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1/130. Drowning due to cyclobenzaprine and ethanol.

    The deceased was a 35 year old female who was found by her husband in the bathtub with her head and face submerged in the water. autopsy findings were unremarkable. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of ethanol (215 mg/dL) and cyclobenzaprine (1.786 mg/l) in the blood. This high concentration of cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) in combination with alcohol proved to be fatal. ( info)

2/130. temporal bone pathology findings due to drowning.

    It has been reported that anoxia due to near-drowning or near-suffocation causes brain damage but not inner ear damage. On the other hand, it has been shown that brain death causes both brain damage and inner ear damage. However, studies of temporal bone pathology resulting from sudden death due to drowning are few. We studied temporal bone pathology in six cases of individuals who died of accidents due to drowning. In all temporal bones examined, we found extensive congestion petechiae and haemorrhage in the vessels in the mucosal layers of the middle ear and mastoid air cells, as well as in the vessels around the facial nerve and carotid canal. In the inner ear, there was no abnormality in Corti's organ or the vestibular organs, except in one case who died in the bath. Our findings suggest that petechiae haemorrhage or congestion in the vessels of the mucosal layer and the vessels themselves of the middle ear occurs upon acute death due to drowning. ( info)

3/130. Drowning and near-drowning--some lessons learnt.

    Over a period of sixteen months, 17 cases of submersion injury (encompassing victims of drowning and near-drowning) were attended to at our Accident and Emergency Department at Changi General Hospital. Most of the victims were inexperienced recreational swimmers, and in 6 of them, early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation enabled them to recover without severe morbidity. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema with resulting chest infection was the commonest complication in survivors. Most of the episodes occurred in an urban setting in swimming pools without supervision by lifeguards. About two-thirds of the cases were adults over the age of fifteen years. In addition, there were patients in whom submersion injury was associated with more sinister conditions (fits, traumatic cervical spine injury, dysbarism, intoxication from alcohol or drugs), some of which were unsuspected by the doctors initially. Apart from the immediate threats of hypoxia and pulmonary injury, active search for any possible precipitating causes and associated occult injury should be made. In this study, the determinants of survival from near-drowning were early institution of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, presence of pupil reactivity, and presence of a palpable pulse and cardiac sinus rhythm. ( info)

4/130. Hydrocution in a case of Coxsackie virus infection.

    An apparently healthy 7-year-old boy attempted to demonstrate his ability to dive into a whirlpool but was retrieved from the water in a state of unconsciousness after several minutes. Resuscitation was unsuccessful. No characteristic signs of drowning were found at the autopsy but examination of the lymph nodes and the cardiac muscle indicated a pre-existent infection. The histological examination revealed a slight degree of predominantly lymphocytic infiltration of the cardiac muscle. IgM antibodies against Coxsackie virus were detected in the serum sample by means of ELISA. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on an extract of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cardiac muscle tissue revealed a dna sequence specific for Coxsackie B3 virus. Therefore, cardiac failure was due to a myocardial virus infection and the additional strain caused by diving. This case report emphasizes the importance of modern molecular biological methods in cases of sudden death including death by hydrocution. ( info)

5/130. Swimming, a gene-specific arrhythmogenic trigger for inherited long qt syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic basis for long qt syndrome (LQTS) in a cohort of patients with a personal history or an extended family history of a swimming-triggered cardiac event. patients AND methods: After review of the Mayo Clinic unit medical record system, blood samples or archived autopsy tissue samples were obtained from a retrospective cohort of 35 cases diagnosed as having autosomal dominant LQTS. Exon-specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequence analyses were performed on the entire KVLQT1 gene. RESULTS: Six cases had a personal history or an extended family history of a near drowning or drowning. In all 6 cases, LQTS-causing mutations in KVLQT1 gene were identified: 3 deletion mutations, 2 donor splice site mutations, and 1 missense mutation. One of the mutations, a novel donor splicing defect, was determined by postmortem molecular analysis of a paraffin-embedded tissue block from a 12-year-old girl who died in 1976. Distinct KVLQT1 mutations were demonstrated in 3 of the remaining 29 cases. The overall frequency of KVLQT1 defects in LQTS was 100% (6/6) in those with and 10% (3/29) in those without a personal history or an extended family history of drowning or near drowning (P<.001). CONCLUSION: Swimming appears to be a gene-specific (KVLQT1) arrhythmogenic trigger for LQTS. This study provides proof of principle that an unexplained drowning or near drowning may have a genetic basis. ( info)

6/130. suicide by drowning in the bath.

    A series of 14 cases of suicide by drowning in the bath in the Bristol area, england between 1974 and 1996 is presented. There were six males and eight females with a mean age of 66 years. The majority were married and lived with their spouse or another relative. Most drowned at home, face down, fully clothed. Six cases had evidence of concomitant alcohol or substance use. Seven cases had a past psychiatric history and a history of previous deliberate self-harm. Issues concerning prevention are discussed. ( info)

7/130. Limbs found in water: investigation using anthropological analysis and the diatom test.

    We report the investigation, using a multi-disciplinary approach, of five cases of dismembered limbs which were recovered from Lake ontario, Lake Erie and the Niagara River, and examined at the Office of the Chief Coroner for ontario. In all cases, postmortem examination revealed that the limbs had been disarticulated in the postmortem period, by non-human taphonomic processes. In addition to routine gross examination, the femur and/or tibia were assessed using anthropological methods to give estimates of the sex, age, race and stature of the individual. The anthropologic data facilitated the identification of one of the cases. In all cases, nitric acid extracts of the femoral bone marrow were prepared and examined for the presence of diatoms. In all instances, diatom frustules were recovered from marrow extracts, indicating that drowning was the cause of death or at least a significant contributing factor in the cause of death. The use of the diatom test was helpful in excluding the possibility that the limbs were dismembered from individuals who had died by means other than drowning, and had been subsequently 'dumped' into water. The application of anthropological methods and the diatom test for drowning may significantly enhance the medico-legal investigation of body parts recovered from water, and we present an overview of useful techniques here. Anthropological data may facilitate identification, and the diatom test may establish a cause of death. ( info)

8/130. Hypotensive hemorrhagic necrosis in basal ganglia and brainstem.

    Hypotensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the basal ganglia and brainstem has only occasionally been described. Three such cases are reported. Cardiac arrest had occurred in all cases, and it took at least 1 hour to restore adequate circulation. The patients remained comatose for 2 days to 2 weeks until death. Persistent hypotension causing ischemia in the distribution of deep perforating arteries is considered to have been the key underlying mechanism. hemorrhage is thought to have been caused by extravasation of red blood cells through damaged blood vessels. ( info)

9/130. mortality in pediatric epilepsy.

    mortality in pediatric epilepsy is the subject of this review. epilepsy in both adults and children increases the risk of premature death. Conditions that are comorbid with epilepsy may carry an increased mortality risk. patients with neurologic compromise may be at risk for aspiration and critical respiratory disease. epilepsy per se enhances the risks of accidents, particularly drowning. epilepsy may result in unwitnessed or, less frequently, witnessed sudden death. Witnessed sudden death frequently involves an observed seizure. Cardiac and respiratory mechanisms for epileptic sudden death have been proposed. Reducing the number of seizures should reduce the risk for sudden death. awareness of the increased risk for premature death associated with epilepsy may enhance patients' and parents' cooperation with therapy. ( info)

10/130. Diatom numbers around the continental shelf break.

    Diatom concentrations in seawater were examined monthly at four aquatic areas. Diatom concentrations inside a bay showed a monthly variation, but these were detectable. On the other hand, in the open sea around the continental shelf break, there were few diatoms in any season. When a person drowns in the open sea, the diatom test cannot be expected to function reliably. ( info)
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