Cases reported "Drug Eruptions"

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1/588. Hypersensitivity reaction in a child due to lamotrigine.

    Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant with a broad spectrum of activity that has been approved in the united states for use in adults with either partial or generalized seizures. This drug is being widely prescribed by pediatricians and neurologists because it is effective in children with idiopathic, resistant, generalized seizures and does not impair cognition. As with other anticonvulsants, a hypersensitivity syndrome has been described. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome consists of the hallmark features of fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy. We report the first case of hypersensitivity syndrome in a child due to lamotrigine in which we believe the coadministration of valproic acid increased the duration of the reaction. Our patient had a high spiking fever, generalized morbilliform eruption, facial edema, lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytosis, and an elevation in his liver function tests. The syndrome resolved with the discontinuation of the medication. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome may occur with the administration of lamotrigine. Variable presentations may be seen, as hypersensitivity syndromes may be multisystem in nature. The prompt recognition of the signs and symptoms of this condition allows an accurate diagnosis so that the drug may be discontinued and other anticonvulsant treatment options instituted.
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2/588. Delayed hypersensitivity to enoxaparin.

    A 65-year-old woman experienced immediate itchy erythematous patches at the subcutaneous injection sites of sodium enoxaparin. An erythematous and infiltrated 40 x 20 mm lesion on the abdominal wall could be observed at the site of enoxaparin injection when she was referred to our clinic 48 h after injection. Lesions subsided spontaneously within 1 week. She had been on this treatment 1 and 3 years before without any adverse reaction. To clarify the nature of the reaction, epicutaneous tests with sodium enoxaparin, calcium nadroparin and calcium heparin were performed, all with negative results. Skin prick test with sodium enoxaparin was also negative. biopsy of the cutaneous lesion showed spongiotic dermatitis, strongly suggesting a delayed hypersensitivity mechanism. We report here on a new case of delayed hypersensitivity to enoxaparin. Being female, overweight and having prolonged application of the drug were suggested risk factors present in our patient. biopsy was essential for diagnosis. Although type IV hypersensitivity reactions to enoxaparin are rare, we should start to suspect this condition in order not to underdiagnose it.
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3/588. Lymphocyte transformation test for the evaluation of adverse effects of antituberculous drugs.

    The usefulness of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) for the analysis of adverse reactions to antituberculous drugs was evaluated. - The LTT was performed with isoniazid and rifampicin in 15 tuberculosis and 2 MOTT (Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis)-infection patients who suffered drug reactions, in 23 patients without any adverse reactions, in 7 controls previously exposed to antituberculous drugs, and in 14 controls who had never been exposed. 4/15 of the hepatotoxic reactions only showed a positive LTT with rifampicin, 3/15 only with isoniazid, and in 8/15 the LTT was negative. In an anaphylactoid shock reaction the LTT was extremely exaggerated for both rifampicin and isoniazid. In patients without any side effects only one slightly increased LTT due to isoniazid was observed. Two healthy controls with previous contact to these drugs showed a positive LTT for isoniazid, one of those with both rifampicin and isoniazid. The LTT was negative in all control persons without any former contact to antituberculous medications. In most cases hepatotoxicity seems to be a pure toxic reaction without the participation of cellular immune mechanisms. LTT can be useful for identifying the drug responsible for immunological side effects.
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4/588. linear iga bullous dermatosis in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia: possible involvement of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    We describe a case of linear iga bullous dermatosis (LABD) in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia during treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). After a drug eruption due to imipenem cilastatin sodium had disappeared, bullous lesions appeared on the trunk. Results of histopathological studies and direct immunofluorescence studies of the lesion were consistent with LABD. Reinstitution of G-CSF after the resolution, however, did not reproduce the bullous eruptions. This suggests that in addition to G-CSF, the presence of precipitating factors that can synergistically enhance or accelerate the outbreak of the disease is required for the development of bullous lesions. Various cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), endogenously produced from activated lymphocytes during the drug eruption might have provided a favorable milieu for the onset of G-CSF-induced LABD. We suggest that patients with LABD will need special attention with respect to the type of cytokines or combination of cytokines given as therapeutic modalities.
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5/588. Embolia cutis medicamentosa of the foot after sclerotherapy.

    Typically, embolia cutis medicamentosa is reported after intramuscular injections of drugs. We describe a case of embolia cutis medicamentosa after sclerotherapy of intracutaneous veins of the foot with a polidocanol solution of 1%. Under therapy with intravenous alprostadil, pentoxifyllin, internal steroids and anticoagulation with heparin, the lesions healed completely without necrosis.
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6/588. Pseudoporphyria induced by propionic acid derivatives.

    BACKGROUND: Pseudoporphyria is a photosensitive bullous skin disease that is distinguished from porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) by its normal porphyrin profile. Drugs are a major cause of this disease, and the list of culprits is continually expanding. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), especially naproxen and other propionic acid derivatives, appear to be the most common offenders. OBJECTIVE: The study was carried out to increase awareness about the etiology and characteristic features of pseudoporphyria. methods: We report two cases of pseudoporphyria caused by naproxen and oxaprozin. We review the current English language literature on this entity and discuss its clinical features, histology, ultrastructure, etiology, and pathophysiology. RESULTS: A 44-year-old man taking naproxen for chronic low back pain and a 20-year-old woman on oxaprozin for rheumatoid arthritis presented with tense bullae and cutaneous fragility on the face and the back of the hands. In both, skin biopsy showed a cell-poor subepidermal vesicle with festooning of the dermal papillae. Direct immunofluorescence revealed staining at the dermal-epidermal junction and around blood vessels with IgG in the first case and with IgG, IgA, and fibrin in the second case. urine collections and serum samples yielded normal levels of uro- and coproporphyrins. CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of pseudoporphyria are drug-induced. naproxen, the most common offender, has been associated with a dimorphic clinical pattern: a PCT-like presentation and one simulating erythropoietic protoporphyria in the pediatric population. Other NSAIDs of the propionic acid family can also cause pseudoporphyria.
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7/588. A case report of neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis in a patient receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a neutrophilic dermatosis primarily affecting the eccrine glands and occurs in patients undergoing chemotherapy. It must be distinguished from infections, drug eruptions, leukaemia cutis or other forms of skin diseases. As it is self-limiting, establishing the diagnosis will avoid unnecessary treatment for infections or changes in drug therapy.
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8/588. Anaphylactic reaction to oral cefaclor in a child.

    Adverse drug reactions are a common clinical problem. It has been estimated that 6% to 15% of hospitalized patients experience some sort of adverse drug reaction. Clinical manifestations of adverse drug reactions include skin rash; a serum sickness-like reaction; drug fever; pulmonary, hepatic, and renal involvement; and systemic anaphylaxis. Many of these adverse events are not immunologically mediated. Actual allergic or immunologic drug reactions probably account for <25% of adverse drug reactions overall. Antibiotics are one of the major contributors to drug hypersensitivity. cefaclor, an oral second-generation cephalosporin with a beta-lactam ring, is used against various infectious diseases of the respiratory tract, especially in children. Several cases of cefaclor hypersensitivity have been reported. The most common presentations are either erythematous or papular eruptions, although serum sickness-like reactions have also been described. Anaphylactic reactions, although rare, have been observed in adults. Here we report a case of anaphylactic reaction to cefaclor in a 21/2-year-old patient.
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9/588. Pseudoporphyria associated with Relafen therapy.

    Various oral medications including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with pseudoporphyria, although the pathogenetic basis has not been elucidated. A novel NSAID nabumetone (Relafen) has become popular because of its minimal gastrointestinal side effects. Its association with pseudoporphyria is not reported save for its listing in the Physician's Desk Reference (PDR) as a possible side effect. Biopsies of lesional skin from 4 patients manifesting blisters and erosions on the hands and face within 4 months of starting nabumetone were submitted for light microscopic and immunofluorescent (IF) studies. Histories and serology were obtained. Two patients had rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 1 had mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and 1 received diltiazem. All 4 had antinuclear antibodies. Characteristic clinical, light microscopic and IF features in the absence of elevated urine porphyrin levels confirmed a diagnosis of pseudoporphyria in all 4 patients. Biopsies in three patients showed features attributed to underlying connective tissue disease (CTD), including ectasia of the superficial vascular plexus, mild leukocytoclastic vasculitis, superficial and deep perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates with dermal mucinosis, granular deposition of IgM along the dermoepidermal junction indicative of a positive lupus band test, and of IgG and C5b-9 within keratinocytes. Nabumetone (Relafen) can provoke pseudoporphyria; an underlying CTD diathesis may be a predisposing factor.
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10/588. nitrofurantoin-associated Sweet's syndrome.

    A 53-year-old woman was seen for arthralgias, fever, and a painful rash developing at the end of a 7-day course of nitrofurantoin for a urinary tract infection. Her only other medication was naproxen, which was started after the onset of symptoms. Initial biopsy showed microscopic changes suggestive of a toxic eruption, but within 3 days the clinical signs and symptoms typical of Sweet's syndrome evolved. A repeat biopsy showed microscopic features characteristic of that diagnosis. The patient subsequently cleared with prednisone therapy. We report this patient as a case consistent with drug-induced Sweet's syndrome induced by nitrofurantoin.
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