Cases reported "Drug Eruptions"

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1/16. Pseudoporphyria induced by propionic acid derivatives.

    BACKGROUND: Pseudoporphyria is a photosensitive bullous skin disease that is distinguished from porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) by its normal porphyrin profile. Drugs are a major cause of this disease, and the list of culprits is continually expanding. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), especially naproxen and other propionic acid derivatives, appear to be the most common offenders. OBJECTIVE: The study was carried out to increase awareness about the etiology and characteristic features of pseudoporphyria. methods: We report two cases of pseudoporphyria caused by naproxen and oxaprozin. We review the current English language literature on this entity and discuss its clinical features, histology, ultrastructure, etiology, and pathophysiology. RESULTS: A 44-year-old man taking naproxen for chronic low back pain and a 20-year-old woman on oxaprozin for rheumatoid arthritis presented with tense bullae and cutaneous fragility on the face and the back of the hands. In both, skin biopsy showed a cell-poor subepidermal vesicle with festooning of the dermal papillae. Direct immunofluorescence revealed staining at the dermal-epidermal junction and around blood vessels with IgG in the first case and with IgG, IgA, and fibrin in the second case. urine collections and serum samples yielded normal levels of uro- and coproporphyrins. CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of pseudoporphyria are drug-induced. naproxen, the most common offender, has been associated with a dimorphic clinical pattern: a PCT-like presentation and one simulating erythropoietic protoporphyria in the pediatric population. Other NSAIDs of the propionic acid family can also cause pseudoporphyria.
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2/16. A case report of neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis in a patient receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a neutrophilic dermatosis primarily affecting the eccrine glands and occurs in patients undergoing chemotherapy. It must be distinguished from infections, drug eruptions, leukaemia cutis or other forms of skin diseases. As it is self-limiting, establishing the diagnosis will avoid unnecessary treatment for infections or changes in drug therapy.
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3/16. Graft-versus-host disease-like immunophenotype and apoptotic keratinocyte death in paraneoplastic pemphigus.

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PP) is an autoimmune disease, which is frequently associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. autoantibodies against components of the cytoplasmic plaque of epithelial desmosomes are usually present in the sera and are believed to play a major pathogenic part in acantholysis and suprabasal epidermal blistering. However, another typical histological feature of PP, interface dermatitis with keratinocyte dyskeratosis, is shared with skin diseases that involve epithelial damage mediated by T cells. Here, we present the detailed characterization of the cutaneous T-cell response in a patient with PP and demonstrate a selective epidermal accumulation of activated CD8 T cells together with an increased local production of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and a strong expression of HLA-DR and ICAM-1 on keratinocytes. apoptosis was identified as a key mechanism of keratinocyte death, and appeared independent of the FAS/FAS ligand (FAS-L) pathway, as epidermal expression of FAS was not increased compared with normal skin, and FAS-L was undetectable on the protein and mRNA level. Triple therapy with high-dose corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and intravenous immunoglobulins reduced levels of pemphigus-like autoantibodies and reversed the cutaneous inflammatory reaction leading to long-standing clinical remission. Our findings support the concept of a major contribution of cytotoxic T lymphocytes to the immunopathology of paraneoplastic pemphigus.
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keywords = skin disease
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4/16. autoantibodies in anti-p200 pemphigoid stain skin lacking laminin 5 and type VII collagen.

    We report the case of a patient with a widespread bullous skin disease and linear deposits of IgG and C3 at the dermal-epidermal junction using direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated circulating IgG autoantibodies that stained, like autoantibodies to laminin 5 and type VII collagen, the dermal side of 1 mol L-1 NaCl-split human skin. By immunoblotting dermal extracts, the patient's serum, like serum samples from two control patients, reacted with a 200-kDa protein. Using immunoelectron microscopy, the serum labelled a component of the lower lamina lucida, but not the lamina densa/sublamina densa region, distinguishing this from the type VII collagen localization pattern. By immunofluorescence microscopy on skin sections from patients lacking either laminin 5 (Herlitz's epidermolysis bullosa) or type VII collagen (recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa of Hallopeau-Siemens), the patient's serum retained reactivity with these test substrates. The patient's disease responded rapidly to the use of topical corticosteroids and lesions healed without scarring or milia formation. Our results provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that the 200 kDa autoantigen is different from laminin 5 and type VII collagen. For this new disease, we propose the designation 'anti-p200 pemphigoid'.
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5/16. Acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis (AGEP) in a patient treated with furosemide.

    BACKGROUND: Although they appear more rarely than electrolyte disturbances, cutaneous reactions are important adverse effects of furosemide. This is particularly true for bullous skin eruptions, because they may be life-threatening. CASE REPORT: We describe a patient who developed acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis (AGEP) during treatment with furosemide. Because the patient had developed similar skin eruptions during treatment with furosemide years before, furosemide was considered the most likely cause of this reaction. The short period of time between exposure to furosemide and the appearance of the skin reaction, as well as a positive lymphocyte transformation test, suggest an immunological mechanism of the skin disease. CONCLUSION: AGEP is a possible cutaneous side effect of furosemide.
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keywords = skin disease
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6/16. linear iga bullous dermatosis induced by atorvastatin.

    linear iga bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease characterized by circulating IgA antibodies binding the basement membrane zone. In most cases the origin is not clear, but in a minority of cases LABD is drug induced. We describe a patient in whom linear IgA disease developed shortly after beginning therapy with atorvastatin. In Western blotting analysis we detected IgA and IgG class antibodies targeting a 97-kd protein. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of atorvastatin-induced LABD.
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keywords = skin disease
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7/16. skin diseases in ghana and the UK.

    BACKGROUND: Although diseases of the skin have been studied in some African countries, the provision of dermatology services is as yet a relatively underdeveloped aspect of medicine in sub-Saharan africa. OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of skin diseases seen in a sub-Saharan community and to compare it with that seen in a European community. methods: The diagnoses of the principal presenting complaint of 2254 consecutive new patients seen at the dermatology clinic of Komfo Anokye teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, ghana, are presented and compared with those of 3383 consecutive new patients seen at the dermatology clinic of The William Harvey Hospital (WHH), Ashford, Kent, UK. RESULTS: The most common conditions in ghana were infections (46.3%; UK, 12%). In the UK, the most common conditions were malignant and premalignant diseases of the skin (22.2%; ghana, 0.5%) and benign tumors (16.8%; ghana, 0.5%). dermatitis was common in both countries (ghana, 18.4%; UK, 16.0%). psoriasis was more common in the UK (6.2%) than in ghana (0.4%). In ghana, fixed drug eruption, mainly due to cotrimoxazole (Septrin), was not rare (27 cases), and complications from cosmetic skin lightening creams were a frequent problem among women (86 cases). No cases of rosacea were found in ghana, but it was not uncommon in the UK (1.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of skin diseases are different in the two countries. It is hoped that this study may help to catalyze the further development of dermatology services in ghana.
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keywords = skin disease
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8/16. anaphylaxis to 5-methoxypsoralen during photochemotherapy.

    photochemotherapy is very effective for the treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis, as well as for the prophylactic 'hardening' therapy of patients suffering from polymorphic light eruption. The photosensitizers most widely used for oral photochemotherapy are the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen. Beside light-induced phototoxic reactions due to the photosensitizing activity of psoralens, side-effects after the oral intake of psoralens are nausea and vomiting, headaches, anxiety and sleeplessness. We report a rare case of anaphylaxis to 5-methoxypsoralen that developed during prophylactic 'hardening' therapy in a 36-year-old woman suffering from polymorphic light eruption. anaphylaxis to 5-methoxypsoralen was established by placebo-controlled oral provocation tests.
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keywords = skin disease
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9/16. Bullous skin disease: an unusual allergic reaction to vancomycin.

    Severe reactions due to vancomycin are uncommon. We describe a case of vancomycin-induced linear immunoglobulin a bullous disease and review the literature pertinent to this entity. This is a rare subepidermal blistering disorder, with a heterogenous clinical presentation. It is characterized by IgA deposition in a linear pattern along the basement membrane zone. It seems to be autoantibody-mediated and is not dose-dependent. Spontaneous and complete skin healing follows vancomycin withdrawal; rechallenge reproduces the disease with a more rapid and severe onset. Because vancomycin is almost never suspected to be the cause of such manifestations, awareness of this rare autoimmune reaction is crucial. early diagnosis through direct immunofluorescence of the perilesional skin would avoid unnecessary laboratory investigations and therapeutic measures and would shorten significantly the pain and suffering of these patients.
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ranking = 4
keywords = skin disease
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10/16. Trauma-localized fixed drug eruption: involvement of burn scars, insect bites and venipuncture sites.

    Little is known about why fixed drug eruption (FDE) lesions initially appear in a particular area of predilection. We describe 2 cases in whom the FDE lesions initially appeared exactly at the same sites of a previous trauma, such as burn scars and insect bites, and at a venipuncture site. The interval between the original trauma and the initial onset of FDE ranged from 2 days to 22 years. These 'trauma-localized' FDE lesions are helpful for our understanding of the mechanisms of FDE and other skin diseases, which often appear in their particular areas of predilection, a finding known as 'recall phenomenon'.
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