Cases reported "Drug Hypersensitivity"

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1/216. skin eruption with gabapentin in a patient with repeated AED-induced Stevens-Johnson's syndrome.

    skin eruptions have been reported with the use of all antiepileptic drugs and there is a significant risk of cross-reactivity between these agents in causing serious eruptions such as Stevens-Johnson's syndrome. Gabepentin is usually considered a safe agent for patients with a previous history of drug allergies and there have been no cases of skin eruption reported to the gabapentin post marketing surveillance. We report a patient who had severe Stevens-Johnson's syndrome induced by phenytoin and later by carbamazepine. Subsequent use of gabapentin also resulted in a skin eruption which was limited to the lower extremities but without systemic or mucosal involvement. This case suggests that patients with a strong history of drug-induced idiosyncratic reactions may experience such reactions to gabapentin as well.
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2/216. Allergic reactions to lignocaine.

    True allergic reactions to local analgesics are extremely rare. This case report illustrates the procedures adopted to manage a patient with a history of suspected allergy. A young woman was found to have a true type I hypersensitivity to lignocaine. Another routinely used local analgesic agent, prilocaine, was tested by the same methods and found to give no allergic response. Dental treatment was successfully completed using the latter and the patient advised to wear a medical alert bracelet.
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3/216. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome occurring as sepsis with multiorgan dysfunction.

    phenytoin is a highly effective and widely prescribed anticonvulsant agent. However, it is associated with both dose-related side effects and hypersensitivity reactions. life-threatening anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in one patient was characterized by a skin eruption and multisystem organ dysfunction.
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4/216. Allergic-type reactions to corticosteroids.

    OBJECTIVE: To review reported cases of suspected allergic reactions to various corticosteroids. DATA SOURCES: A medline search (January 1966-December 1997) was performed to obtain case reports and review articles on allergic-type reactions to corticosteroids. Further references were obtained from these publications. STUDY SELECTION: Reports involving allergic or allergic-type reactions to systemic administration of corticosteroids were chosen for this review. An allergic-type reaction was defined as any reaction after administration of the drug that involved the appearance of adverse symptoms that are characteristic of unwanted immune responses. These symptoms include rash, sneezing, dyspnea, edema, bronchospasm, or death. Articles were excluded from the evaluation if they described reactions to topical, intraarticular, or ophthalmic corticosteroid administration. DATA SYNTHESIS: Corticosteroids are medications that are often used to treat allergic reactions. However, it appears that patients can also have allergic-type reactions to these agents. The severity of the reaction can vary from a rash to anaphylaxis or death. Both immediate and delayed reactions can occur. Allergic-type reactions are reported to occur more frequently in asthmatic and renal transplant patients than other patient populations. However, it is questionable whether all of these are true allergic responses, as there is conflicting evidence regarding the mechanism of the reaction. The most commonly implicated corticosteroids are methylprednisolone and hydrocortisone, but reactions have also occurred with others. Intradermal skin testing can help determine cross-sensitivity, although its value has not been conclusively demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should be aware that allergic reactions to corticosteroids are possible. Worsening of symptoms may not always mean treatment failure, but may indicate an allergic reaction. High doses of corticosteroids (> or = 500 mg) should be given over 30-60 minutes, and patients should be observed after administration for at least the same time period. Asthmatics, renal transplant patients, and hemodynamically unstable patients may be at higher risk for adverse events. If a patient is found to be allergic to one corticosteroid, intradermal skin testing may help identify another corticosteroid that can be tolerated.
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5/216. Lamotrigine overdose presenting as anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the laboratory and physical manifestations of lamotrigine toxicity presenting as anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. CASE SUMMARY: A 49-year-old white man presented to our institution with a two-day history of low-grade fever, erythema, and edema involving the periorbital area. Five days earlier, he had been placed on lamotrigine treatment for bipolar disorder. He inadvertently received four daily doses of lamotrigine 2700 mg each. physical examination was significant for periorbital edema and discrete and confluent blanching red macules and papules involving the face, trunk, and extremities. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, hepatitis, and acute renal failure. With normalization of the laboratory results, the eruptions and edema gradually resolved. DISCUSSION: Lamotrigine toxicity can lead to periorbital edema, rash, and multiorgan system abnormalities. This presentation has clinical and laboratory similarities with anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome, which suggests that at some threshold concentration the amount of lamotrigine may overwhelm the body's ability to metabolize the drug, leading to a similar hypersensitivity reaction. Lamotrigine is a relatively new agent, and this report may provide useful insights on evaluating the clinical toxicology of this agent. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare providers should be aware that lamotrigine overdose may present with multiorgan involvement, similar to anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome.
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6/216. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapy.

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a review of the immune system response involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) and anaphylactic reactions to chemotherapy. DATA SOURCES: Professional experience, published articles, and book chapters. CONCLUSIONS: Acute HSRs from chemotherapy administration can be a rare to moderate occurrence, depending on the chemotherapy agents involved. It is of vital importance for nurses caring for patients receiving chemotherapy to take steps to prevent HSRs when possible and/or to minimize the potentially fatal effects of those reactions. IMPLICATIONS FOR nursing PRACTICE: nurses caring for patients receiving chemotherapy should understand the risk of HSRs as well as the pathophysiology involved to ensure utilization of preventive measures when appropriate and early recognition and intervention in the event of an acute HSR.
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7/216. asthma due to inhaled chemical agents--the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin.

    One year after starting work in the pharmaceutical industry a 35-year-old non-atopic maintenance engineer developed attacks of sneezing, coughing and breathlessness. These occurred at home during the evening and early morning, never at work during the day. His employment involved contact with a wide variety of chemical agents including the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin. inhalation challenge tests carried out in hospital with gradually increasing quantities of spiramycin reproduced his symptoms and led to the development of late asthmatic reactions, during which the FEV1 fell by 25% and the FEV1/FVC ratio by 15%. No change occurred in the single breath CO transfer factor nor were crepitations heard over the lung fields which remained normal on chest X-ray. The patient showed positive immediate skin prick tests to spiramycin and developed blood eosinophilia during the late asthma attacks. inhalation of sodium cromoglycate either before, or before and hourly after the provocation challenge for 6 hr, failed to prevent the late asthma, although its onset was further delayed. On leaving the pharmaceutical industry the patient's symptoms improved but did not finally clear until his wife, who had worked in a clerical capacity in the same factory also ceased her employment.
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8/216. Desensitization to allopurinol in a patient with previous failed desensitization.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an allopurinol desensitization that failed on the first attempt but was successful on the second attempt, resulting in the management of crippling tophaceous gout. CASE SUMMARY: A 64-year-old white man with a history of gouty nephropathy requiring hemodialysis developed a severe cutaneous reaction from exposure to allopurinol. The first desensitization attempt was unsuccessful, and the gouty nephropathy caused chronic cellulitus and urate microcrystal deposition on the patient's hands and feet. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis were used to treat the patient's severe symptoms and increase uric acid clearance. This method, however, was ineffective. Severe tissue ischemia, requiring bilateral below-the-knee amputations, prompted the second desensitization attempt four years later. The second attempt, administered differently and with more caution, was successful and did not cause further complications. DISCUSSION: allopurinol is the only agent available to effectively reduce uric acid concentrations in those who are over-producers. hypersensitivity-type reactions have been reported with its use, and desensitization is the only viable therapeutic option. Few cases of desensitization to allopurinol have been reported in the literature. This article describes a failure and a subsequent success in desensitization to allopurinol. CONCLUSIONS: Although desensitization to allopurinol poses potential risks, the benefits can outweigh the risks of therapy. Desensitization requires close monitoring; if failure does occur, subsequent attempts can be successful, as this case report demonstrates.
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9/216. Relapsing acute pancreatitis induced by re-exposure to the cholesterol lowering agent bezafibrate.

    We report a 75-yr-old patient, who presented three times with acute pancreatitis, accompanied by high temperature, shock, and multiorgan involvement and associated each time with exposure to the cholesterol lowering agent bezafibrate. Extensive workup excluded other possible causes for recurrent pancreatitis in this patient, further supporting bezafibrate as the cause of the patient's acute illness. Based on the short time elapsing between rechallenge and development of manifestations and the specific features of the attacks, we proposed hypersensitivity to bezafibrate as the underlying mechanism. The present report includes, for the first time, bezafibrate among definite causes of acute pancreatitis.
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10/216. Gadodiamide as an alternative contrast medium in cerebral angiography in a patient with sensitivity to iodinated contrast medium.

    The physical and pharmacological properties of gadolinium enable its chelates to be used as a contrast medium in digital subtraction angiography. We report the use of gadodiamide, a low-osmolar nonionic gadolinium chelate, for selective angiography in a patient with known sensitivity to iodinated contrast medium. No adverse effects were encountered during or after injection. Contrary to a single previous report of the use of these agents in cerebral angiography, contrast in the angiogram was not particularly good, especially in the distal circulation, but the angiogram was diagnostic.
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