Cases reported "Dry Eye Syndromes"

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1/57. Treatment of dry eye by autologous serum application in sjogren's syndrome.

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of autologous serum application for the treatment of dry eye in sjogren's syndrome. methods: The stability of essential components (EGF, vitamin a, and TGF-beta) in preserved serum were examined following preservation at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C. In a primary clinical trial, 12 patients with sjogren's syndrome were treated with autologous serum (diluted to 20% with sterile saline) for 4 weeks, and vital staining of the ocular surface was compared before and after treatment. The effects of serum on mucin (MUC-1) expression were observed in cultured conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro. RESULTS: EGF, vitamin a, and TGF-beta were well preserved for up to 1 month in the refrigerator at 4 degrees C and up to 3 months in the freezer at -20 degrees C. rose bengal and fluorescein scores improved significantly from the initial scores of 5.3 and 5.6 to 1.7 and 2.5 after 4 weeks, respectively. The additive effect of human serum for cultured conjunctival epithelial cells showed significant MUC-1 upregulation on the cell surface. CONCLUSION: Autologous serum application is a safe and efficient way to provide essential components to the ocular surface in the treatment of dry eye associated with sjogren's syndrome. ( info)

2/57. Treatment of persistent corneal epithelial defect by autologous serum application.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of autologous serum application for the treatment of persistent epithelial defect. DESIGN: Prospective, clinical, noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 16 eyes were studied. INTERVENTION: Autologous serum was prepared from the patients and diluted to 20% by saline. The patients were instructed to use the autologous serum six to ten times a day. The concentration of vitamin a, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was measured at 1 week and 1 month stored in the refrigerator and 1 month and 3 months in the freezer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: time to closure of epithelial defect. RESULTS: vitamin a, EGF, and TGF-beta were stable during the 1 month in the refrigerator and 3 months in the freezer. Among 16 persistent epithelial defects, 7 (43.8%) healed within 2 weeks, 3 (18.8%) healed within 1 month, and the remaining 6 (37.5%) did not respond within 1 month. No apparent side effect of autologous serum application was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Autologous serum application healed 43.8% of persistent defect within 2 weeks and 62.5% within 1 month. ( info)

3/57. Familial glucocorticoid deficiency, alacrimia and achalasia--Allgrove syndrome.

    We report three brothers with Allgrove syndrome. All three had evidence of adrenal insufficiency and deficient tear production, though neither of them had achalasia, the third component of the disorder at the time of this report. Neurological abnormalities were present in the index case. The younger siblings were neurologically normal. The familial association of achalasia, alacrimia and adrenal insufficiency, rather than being fortuitous, is a distinct clinical entity. ( info)

4/57. Pyogenic granuloma: a rare complication of silicone punctal plugs.

    To describe pyogenic granuloma formation associated with silicone punctal plugs. A 65-year-old woman with severe dry eye was treated with silicone punctal plugs in both upper and lower puncta. After 14 months of success with the plugs, the patient presented with a fleshy ampullary lesion overlying the plugged superior punctum of her right eye. It was clinically diagnosed as a pyogenic granuloma, and the silicone plug was removed. Since the lesion persisted for 1 month, it was surgically removed. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma. A new plug was inserted and tolerated well. The routine use of silicone plugs are recommended as long as patients are informed of possible rare complications. ( info)

5/57. Acute conjunctivitis associated with biofilm formation on a punctal plug.

    BACKGROUND: Punctal plugs are used for the treatment of tear-deficient type dry eye. We recently examined a case of acute conjunctivitis associated with bacterial biofilm formation on a punctal plug. CASE: A 63-year-old woman diagnosed as having tear-deficient type dry eye came to our hospital with a complaint of soreness in her right eye. Punctal plugs had been inserted into this eye 5 1/2 months previously. On the day of her visit, she presented with acute conjunctivitis. OBSERVATIONS: In biomicroscopical examination, the top of the punctal plug was seen to be covered with a whitish soft material. Microbiological analysis performed on a part of this material was positive for staphylococcus haemolyticus and candida tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy of the removed punctal plug revealed widespread bacterial colonization embedded within an extensive extracellular matrix. Treatment consisted of the replacement of the plug, and administration of a combination of antibacterial eyedrops and preservative-free artificial solution. As a result, the acute conjunctivitis cleared up within 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that a punctal plug poses a potential risk of causing the formation of bacterial biofilm. In such a case, replacement of the plug and/or removal of the accumulated materials should be considered. ( info)

6/57. Successful treatment of dry eye in two patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease with systemic administration of FK506 and corticosteroids.

    PURPOSE: We present two cases of severe dry eye in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGVHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) who were successfully treated by the systemic administration of FK506 and corticosteroids. methods AND RESULTS: A 29-year-old man with chronic myelogenous leukemia underwent SCT. Oral and lung CGVHD developed on approximately day 130, and dry eye associated with CGVHD was diagnosed on day 168. The patient began receiving cyclosporin A (150 mg/d) for the treatment of oral and lung CGVHD. Treatment with prednisolone (1 mg/kg/d) began on approximately day 300. Oral and lung GVHD improved slightly, but worsened again although systemic administration of cyclosporin A and prednisolone were continued. Cyclosporin A was discontinued, and systemic administration of FK506 was started on day 376. Forty-four days later, marked improvement in the ocular surface and other organs was observed. However, the dry eye worsened while tapering FK506, with no flare of other affected organs. A 43-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome underwent SCT. She received FK506 for prophylaxis of CGVHD. She had mild dry eye before SCT. Oral and intestinal CGVHD developed, and the dry eye worsened significantly on approximately day 150 while tapering FK506. Treatment with prednisolone (1 mg/kg/d) began, and the dose of FK506 was increased. By day 240, the symptoms of dry eye and the findings of the ocular surface markedly improved, and CGVHD in other organs was completely resolved. However, the improvement in the dry eye was lost when FK506 was tapered for the second time. CONCLUSION: Systemic administration of FK506 with corticosteroids is an effective treatment of severe dry eye in patients with CGVHD, but long-term administration may be required to achieve a lasting response. These cases also suggest that further investigation into the use of topical FK506 and prednisolone as a maintenance therapy should be pursued. ( info)

7/57. Avascular necrosis in the femoral head secondary to bone marrow infarction in a patient with graft-versus-host disease after unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    We previously reported a case of bone marrow infarction attributable to acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after unrelated bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although the bone marrow infarction-induced arthralgia in this patient improved, severe arthralgia appeared again with exacerbation of chronic GVHD, and the arthralgia was strongly correlated with the clinical course of chronic GVHD, i.e., the course of symptoms such as dermal and hepatic GVHD and ocular dryness. Finally, the patient developed avascular necrosis (AVN) in the right femoral head. serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels were high at the onset of arthralgia but low during remission, and levels of interferon-gamma were undetectable throughout the period of arthralgia. Based on the clinical course and these data, chronic GVHD was thought to have been the major cause of the AVN. Since IL-10 antagonizes various other cytokines that induce GVHD, the increase in IL-10 might have inhibited the development of GVHD. ( info)

8/57. Laser in situ keratomileusis-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy.

    PURPOSE: To report two cases of laser in situ keratomileusis-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy with punctate epitheliopathy and rose bengal staining of the corneal flap. methods: Interventional case reports. RESULTS: A 42-year-old woman and a 37-year-old man with no preoperative symptoms or signs of dry eye developed dry eye symptoms and bilateral punctate epithelial erosions as well as rose bengal staining of the corneal flaps after laser in situ keratomileusis. Neither patient had less than 12 mm of wetting with the Schirmer test without anesthesia at any time point between development and resolution of the flap surface abnormalities. The flap surface abnormalities resolved approximately 6 months after laser in situ keratomileusis. CONCLUSIONS: Laser in situ keratomileusis-induced neurotrophic epitheliopathy may be attributable to loss of trophic influence from severed corneal nerve trunks. The condition typically resolves approximately 6 months after laser in situ keratomileusis or laser in situ keratomileusis retreatment. ( info)

9/57. mucus fishing syndrome: case report and new treatment option.

    BACKGROUND: mucus fishing syndrome (MFS) is a cascading cyclic condition characterized by continuous extraction of mucous strands from the eye. It is usually initiated by ocular irritation. In response to irritation, ocular surface cells produce excess mucus. A "snow balling" cycle begins when the patient extracts ("fishes") excess mucus from the ocular surface, thereby causing further irritation and a more-profound mucous discharge. To date, treatment includes eliminating the initiating element and educating the patient not to touch the eye when extracting the excess mucus, CASE REPORT: Presented is a case of mucus fishing syndrome initiated by dry eye. The patient's diagnosis, MFS, was identified by persistent mucous discharge, his admittance and demonstration of digitally extracting mucus from the ocular surface, and a characteristic rose bengal staining pattern. The conventional treatment initiated by using artificial tears for the dry eye condition and educating the patient not to touch the ocular surface did not provide relief from the excess mucous discharge. Therefore, a new approach to treatment was pursued. In order to break the cycle, a mucolytic agent and an antihistamine-mast cell stabilizer were prescribed, until the ocular surface healed. After treatment, the patient reported alleviation of symptoms and demonstrated improvement in ocular surface integrity by a profound reduction in rose bengal staining. CONCLUSION: mucus fishing syndrome is challenging to resolve with conventional treatment because it requires a certain level of psychological tolerance and perseverance from the patient. By eliminating the present mucus and diminishing mucous production pharmacologically, the practitioner is able to remove the stimulus for digital extraction and thus accelerate ocular surface healing. We present a proposed new treatment option for patients who are refractory to conventional treatments. ( info)

10/57. Decreased tear expression with an abnormal Schirmer's test following botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of lateral canthal rhytides.

    BACKGROUND: Inactivation of muscles of facial expression by chemodenervation with botulinum toxin remains an off-label indication. Nevertheless, it continues to be a safe and effective technique to improve dynamic rhytides and is the treatment of choice for the hypertrophic lateral fibers of the orbicularis oculi muscle that can cause the superimposed crow's feet. OBJECTIVE: Although infrequent and self-limiting, the complication of unexpected muscle weakness from toxin diffusion or erroneous placement is documented. methods: However, injection into the pretarsal portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle resulting in unilateral ocular irritation and diminished tear expression as evidenced by a dry eye and an abnormal Schirmer's test has rarely been reported. Direct injection into the pretarsal fibers of the muscle as opposed to diffusion of the toxin into the muscle fibers or the lacrimal gland was consistent with the onset of action of the toxin and the prolonged duration of the ocular symptoms. RESULTS: Treatment consisted of ocular lubrication until the effects of the toxin dissipated and muscle tone returned. Subsequent treatment did not result in a result in a recurrence of adverse sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: facial muscles are small, not isolated, and often have fibers that interdigitate. An important factor in the administration of botulinum toxin is the identification of the muscles responsible for the corresponding rhytide. Precise knowledge of muscular anatomy and function will aid in minimizing this and other potential complications. ( info)
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