Cases reported "Ductus Arteriosus, Patent"

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1/33. Successful use of high frequency oscillatory ventilation for pneumomediastinum.

    An infant with pneumomediastinum due to mechanical ventilation was successfully treated using high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). The 3-month-old male had undergone ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus and suffered from barotraumatic pneumomediastinum in the postoperative period. Computed tomography of the chest confirmed the diagnosis. While using conventional mechanical ventilation the respiratory failure worsened. HFOV was instituted and the patient improved. A lower airway pressure by this mode of ventilation provided significant advantages in the patient with an air leak. He was subsequently extubated and discharged home.
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2/33. The use of transesophageal echocardiography to evaluate the effectiveness of patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    The ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a comparatively easy operation, but some complications are possible. The most common complication is incomplete ligation of the PDA; others include inadvertent ligation of the descending aorta or left pulmonary artery, transient rise in systemic blood pressure and increased left ventricular afterload, and acute right heart failure due to pulmonary hypertension. The completeness of the PDA ligation is usually determined only by the operating physician's experience, including the use of an esophageal stethoscope or a finger on the lesion to feel for vibration. These methods sometimes fail to detect an incomplete ligation. With transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), we have monitored the entire course of the PDA ligation directly without interrupting the surgical procedure, and precisely determined the completeness of the ligation. We also expect that TEE will enable us to avoid other complications as well.
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3/33. A novel use of Amplatzer duct occluder.

    This report describes the use of the Amplatzer patent ductus arteriosus occluder to close a left ventricle to descending aorta conduit. The patient was a 10-year-old male who was born with critical aortic stenosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. After initial valvotomy, he underwent left ventricular to descending aorta conduit placement. At the age of 10, he had a Konno procedure to enlarge the left ventricular outflow tract and 21-mm St. Jude aortic valve placement. Closure of the conduit was not addressed because it was inaccessable from median sternotomy. Postoperatively, echocardiogram revealed significant flow through the conduit with a wide pulse pressure. cardiac catheterization was performed with the premise to close the conduit with an Amplatzer patent ductus arteriosus occluder device.
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4/33. Aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery associated with ductus arteriosus in an adult. A case report.

    We describe the case of a 26-year-old female in functional class I (NYHA), with aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery associated with a persistent ductus arteriosus and severe pulmonary artery hypertension (101/40-70 mm Hg), which remained elevated (89/40-60 mm Hg) after the administration of 100% oxygen. Right pulmonary artery pressure (125/60-86 mm Hg) was higher than that of main pulmonary artery and similar to aorta pressure. The patient was successfully treated: surgical closure of the ductus arteriosus and end-to-end anastomosis between the pulmonary artery and right pulmonary artery were carried out. Systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, estimated by echocardiography Doppler, was 60 mm Hg six months after surgery. Cross-sectional echocardiogram showed the anastomosis of the right pulmonary artery with the main pulmonary artery. Pulmonary gammagraphy showed both lungs perfused through the main pulmonary artery; right lung perfusion was lesser than left lung perfusion, 30 vs. 70% respectively. Aortic origin of a right or left pulmonary artery is a heart disease seen in patients during the course of the first year of life. Its frequency is < 1% among all the congenital cardiopathies and the survival rate to adult life is very low. The originality of this paper is the presentation of a rare congenital cardiopathy treated surgically in an adult.
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5/33. Necrotizing tracheobronchitis in patent ductus arteriosus-dependent cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    We report 2 patients with necrotizing tracheobronchitis (NTB) associated with patent ductus arteriosus-dependent cyanotic congenital heart disease. The pathologic findings suggest that hypotension and decreased tracheo-bronchial perfusion were the major contributing factors in the development of NTB. Necrotizing tracheobronchitis developed in infants with pulmonary atresia and Ebstein's anomaly with pulmonary stenosis. Both infants required prostaglandin E1 infusion from early infancy, and presented with sudden onset of dyspnea and hypercapnea. In one infant, NTB developed prior to mechanical ventilation. In the other infant, NTB developed after 4 days of mechanical ventilation. Care of both infants involved minimal pressures and FiO(2), adequate humidification, and optimal temperature of inspired gases; these factors probably did not play a role in the development or worsening of NTB. Both infants had hypotension and hypoxemia. These factors could have contributed to the development of NTB because of decreased perfusion pressure and tissue hypoxia. As the area of necrosis and its severity correlated with the area of blood supply served by the specific feeding arteries, we speculate that tissue hypoperfusion was the major cause of NTB.
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6/33. Pulmonary hypertension after ibuprofen prophylaxis in very preterm infants.

    We report three cases of severe hypoxaemia after ibuprofen administration during a randomised controlled trial of prophylactic treatment of patent ductus arteriosus with ibuprofen in premature infants born at less than 28 weeks of gestation. echocardiography showed severely decreased pulmonary blood flow. Hypoxaemia resolved quickly on inhaled nitric oxide therapy. We suggest that investigators involved in similar trials pay close attention to pulmonary pressure if hypoxaemia occurs after prophylactic administration of ibuprofen.
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7/33. Successful closure of the arterial duct in the setting of rubella syndrome.

    A 9-year-old boy, with significant left-to-right shunting across a large duct in the context of rubella syndrome, was tested during catheterization to establish the feasability of occluding the duct with a device. The testing, including temporary closure of the duct and monitoring of pulmonary vascular reactivity to vasodilative substances, lead to the decision to implant an Amplatzer occluder. Sixteen months later, there was no residual shunting across the duct, and pulmonary arterial pressures had normalised. It remains unclear why the patient had not developed irreversible pulmonary vascular disease.
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8/33. Surgical correction of aortic valve stenosis with persistent ductus arterious and servere pulmonary hypertension.

    This is a report of a case in which the unusual association of severe aortic valve stenosis with persistent ductus arteriosus complicated by severe pulmonary hypertension, was diagnosed and correction of the anatomical lesions carried out in one stage. Re-investigation after one year showed that the duct was closed, the pulmonary artery pressure was lower than before the operation and the gradient across the aortic valve reduced. A modern approach to treatment based on full cardiac assessment is stressed. Problems arising during the operation are discussed.
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9/33. Anomalous left coronary artery from the main pulmonary trunk: physiologic and clinical importance of its association with patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension.

    Origin of the left main coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk is an extremely rare, fatal, but potentially treatable anomaly. Left ventricular perfusion with desaturated blood with low pressure from the pulmonary artery results in early death. Associated pulmonary hypertension can help to prevent ischemia. We present a four-month-old boy with this anomaly associated with patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypertension.
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10/33. Successful trapdoor technique for two separate coronary ostia in a single aortic sinus in arterial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries.

    Two separate origins of coronary arteries from a single aortic sinus remains a rare but significant congenital anomaly for surgical repair. We experienced a case of a newborn with complete transposition of the great arteries with unusual coronary arteries with two separate ostia positioned close to each other in the same right aortic sinus, and the left coronary artery coursing behind the pulmonary artery. No description of this case in the English literature has been published to our knowledge. Precise anatomical diagnosis was made at operation, and these anomalous coronaries were successfully transferred by the trapdoor technique with delicate adjustment after transfer. Postoperative catheterization and angiogram done 14 months after the arterial switch operation showed no coronary artery stenosis along with normal chamber pressures. The infant is asymptomatic and shows normal development for his age.
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