Cases reported "Duodenal Neoplasms"

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11/165. Molecular identification of metastatic cancer to the skin using laser capture microdissection: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: In the current study the authors report a 57-year-old woman with a scalp tumor and cervical lymphadenopathy who had a previously resected duodenal carcinoid. Histologic and immunophenotypic characteristics of the duodenal carcinoid differed from those of the scalp and cervical lymph node tumors, prompting the use of molecular methodologies to make the diagnosis. methods: paraffin embedded tissues from the duodenal carcinoid, scalp, and lymph node tumors were dissected using microscopic visualization and laser capture microdissection. dna was extracted and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to evaluate loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite alterations using primers flanking 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers from 9 chromosomal regions, including genes associated with MEN-1 (11q), CDKN2 (9p), p53 (17p), and bronchial carcinoid (3p). Microdissected lymphocytes from the three tissues were used as source of constitutional dna (controls). RESULTS: Fourteen of the 22 markers were informative (heterozygous in control lymphocytes). A marker on 3p12 showed loss of the same parental allele in the three tumors. A different marker on 3p14.2 showed an identical shifted band in the three tumors indicative of a common microsatellite alteration. CONCLUSIONS: The shared molecular abnormalities among the three tumors indicated a common clonal origin, leading to a diagnosis of primary duodenal carcinoid with clear cell metastases to the scalp and cervical lymph nodes. These findings led to radiation therapy and immunotherapy rather than chemotherapy. This case illustrates the novel application of laser capture microdissection combined with PCR-based analyses of genomic markers for the identification of the origin of metastatic disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cancer
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12/165. Brunner's gland adenoma with a focus of p53-positive atypical glands.

    A submucosal tumor was resected endoscopically from the duodenal bulb in a 43-year-old man complaining of epigastric discomfort. The tumor, measuring 22 x 20 x 19mm, consisted mainly of Brunner's glands with no atypia. However, close histologic examination disclosed a focus of glands with cellular and structural atypia. The atypical glands showed staining by periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue, and high iron-diamine methods. Mucin histochemistry was examined, and the atypical glands resembled the excretory ducts rather than the acinar cells of the tumor. Immunohistochemically, positivity for MIB-1 was high (38.0%), and p53-positive cells were detected sporadically in the atypical glands. These results indicated that the atypical glands probably represented a neoplastic lesion. Brunner's gland adenomas associated with foci of true neoplasm are very rare; only two cases, including one patient with microcarcinoid tumors, have been reported.
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ranking = 0.00079636277860576
keywords = neoplasm
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13/165. life-threatening digestive haemorrhage from duodenal recurrence of gastric cancer.

    Invasion of the duodenum by gastric carcinoma is not uncommon. The duodenal invasion by transpiloric infiltration through the submucosal layer or lymphatic spread frequently being microscopic and in minimal number of cases involving the mucosa, is generally asymptomatic and detected only in postmortem examinations. We report a case of life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding from cancer recurrence at duodenal stump after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. In such cases it can be very hard to find the haemorrhagic source because of the difficulties encountered in endoscopic and radiological evaluation of the duodenal stump.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = cancer
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14/165. Duodenal somatostatinoma: a case report and review of 31 cases with special reference to the relationship between tumor size and metastasis.

    Somatostatinomas are rare functioning neoplasms usually arising in the pancreas and duodenum. We report a case of somatostatinoma in a 42-year-old male with neither neurofibromatosis nor somatostatinoma syndrome. A large tumor in the descending duodenum had given rise to multiple lymph node metastases. An additional 31 duodenal somatostatinoma cases were also reviewed. Most originated in the descending part of the duodenum, with the ampulla and peri-ampullary area as the most common sites (60%). Frequent manifestations were abdominal pain (25%), jaundice (25%), or cholelithiasis (19%), the latter two reflecting obstruction of the bile duct by tumors. Only two cases showed a possible somatostatinoma syndrome (6%). The tumors with metastases, lymph nodes (10) and liver (2), were significantly larger than average than those without (2.91 /- 1.49 cm vs 1.36 /- 0.71 cm, P < 0.05). With a cut-off point of 2.0 cm, diagnostic accuracy for metastasis was 77.78% with 87.50% specificity and 63.64% sensitivity. The smallest tumor with metastases was 0.8 cm and the largest without metastases was 3.0 cm. These results indicate that duodenal somatostatinomas are malignant by nature and the risk of metastasis significantly increases with tumors larger than 2.0 cm.
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ranking = 0.00079636277860576
keywords = neoplasm
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15/165. association of a duodenal follicular lymphoma and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an inherited predisposition to colorectal and endometrial cancers caused by germline mutation of mismatch repair genes, with hMLH1 and hMSH2 underlying the majority of the cases. Although lymphoid tumors are the most common tumors in mouse models for HNPCC, lymphomas are almost never encountered in patients who have HNPCC, except in rare families with germline homozygous deletion of hMLH1. We report the case of a 53-year-old man who had a history of colon cancers related to constitutional hMLH1 mutation and who was diagnosed as having a duodenal follicular lymphoma This diagnosis was supported by IgH-BCL2 rearrangement and BCL2 immunoreactivity in tumor cells. The association of both of these possibly related rare diseases has never been reported. To clarify this relationship, we searched for hMLH1 expression and mismatch repair deficiency in the duodenal lymphoma. hMLH1 immunostaining was positive in lymphoid tumor cells, and no microsatellite instability was detected. In agreement with mouse models for HNPCC, these results suggest the involvement of alternative mechanisms to complete mismatch repair deficiency for lymphomagenesis in HNPCC syndrome.
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ranking = 16250.020718211
keywords = hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal, hereditary nonpolyposis, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, nonpolyposis colorectal, nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, nonpolyposis, colorectal, colorectal cancer, cancer
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16/165. A combined PET/CT scanner for clinical oncology.

    The availability of accurately aligned, whole-body anatomical (CT) and functional (PET) images could have a significant impact on diagnosing and staging malignant disease and on identifying and localizing metastases. Computer algorithms to align CT and PET images acquired on different scanners are generally successful for the brain, whereas image alignment in other regions of the body is more problematic. methods: A combined PET/CT tomograph with the unique capability of acquiring accurately aligned functional and anatomical images for any part of the human body has been designed and built. The PET/CT scanner was developed as a combination of a Siemens Somatom AR.SP spiral CT and a partial-ring, rotating ECAT art PET scanner. All components are mounted on a common rotational support within a single gantry. The PET and CT components can be operated either separately, or in combined mode. In combined mode, the CT images are used to correct the PET data for scatter and attenuation. Fully quantitative whole-body images are obtained for an axial extent of 100 cm in an imaging time of less than 1 h. When operated in PET mode alone, transmission scans are acquired with dual 137Cs sources. RESULTS: The scanner is fully operational and the combined device has been operated successfully in a clinical environment. Over 110 patients have been imaged, covering a range of different cancers, including lung, esophageal, head and neck, melanoma, lymphoma, pancreas, and renal cell. The aligned PET and CT images are used both for diagnosing and staging disease and for evaluating response to therapy. We report the first performance measurements from the scanner and present some illustrative clinical studies acquired in cancer patients. CONCLUSION: A combined PET and CT scanner is a practical and effective approach to acquiring co-registered anatomical and functional images in a single scanning session.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = cancer
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17/165. Duodenal carcinoid tumor: report of a case diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy with immunocytochemical correlation.

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a reliable and accurate method for the endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal malignancies and it is particularly well suited for evaluation of submucosal lesions. We report the cytopathologic findings of a case of malignant carcinoid tumor of a 44-year-old male who presented with melena and a nonhealing duodenal ulcer. Endoscopic ultrasound examination revealed a submucosal lesion in the pyloric region. Fine-needle aspiration revealed abundant cellularity with tumor cells arranged in sheets and loose groups and dispersed single cells in a clean background. Papillary fragments, capillaries cuffed by tumor cells, and rosette formation were also noted. The cells were moderate in size, round to oval, with a small subpopulation of spindle-shaped cells. The nuclei were uniform, round to oval, with smooth nuclear borders. The chromatin pattern was finely granular with a salt-and-pepper appearance. The cytoplasm of the cells was small to moderate in amount, pale, and showed fine granularity. The differential diagnosis included a neuroendocrine neoplasm vs. an epithelioid gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The tumor cells were focally positive for chromogranin and negative for CD34, supporting the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine neoplasm. The differential diagnosis of primary gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors from gastrointestinal stromal tumors can be very difficult in cytologic material. In cases when diagnostic material is scant, or only present on one smear, the use of smear division and cell transfer in order to perform immunocytochemical stains may be of considerable value to confirm the neuroendocrine nature of the neoplasms.
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ranking = 0.0023890883358173
keywords = neoplasm
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18/165. Synchronous multiple primary cancers of the stomach and duodenum in aged patients: report of two cases.

    We describe herein the cases of two aged patients found to have synchronous multiple primary cancers of the stomach and duodenum. The first patient was an 82-year-old man who was preoperatively diagnosed as having gastric cancer after presenting with signs of pyloric stenosis. At laparotomy, duodenal cancer was incidentally found to have infiltrated the transverse colon. A pancreatoduodenectomy and right hemicolectomy with radical lymph node dissection was performed. Two early well-differentiated adenocarcinomas of the stomach and an advanced poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the duodenum were confirmed. This patient is now well without any evidence of recurrence more than 5 years after surgery. The second patient was a 77-year-old man who was also diagnosed as having gastric cancer after presenting with signs of pyloric stenosis. Preoperatively, duodenal cancer was detected by endoscopy. A pancreatoduodenectomy and partial colectomy with radical lymph node dissection was performed because the duodenal cancer was suspected of having infiltrated the transverse colon. An early moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach and an advanced moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the duodenum were confirmed, but the duodenal cancer was not seen to invade the transverse colon microscopically. This patient died of cancer 7 months after surgery. Because multiple primary cancers commonly develop in elderly patients, a precise preoperative diagnosis must be made and optimal treatment applied.
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ranking = 3.25
keywords = cancer
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19/165. Tracking down duodenopancreatic malignancy.

    BACKGROUND: Malignant tumours of the duodenum are rare and often difficult to diagnose. Due to the small clinical experience with duodenal malignancies their prognosis is unknown and resection is the treatment of choice. CASE REPORT: Adding to a small series of incidental tumours, we report the case of a 65-year-old patient with primary extranodal (MALT-) lymphoma of the duodenum infiltrating the pancreatic head. The patient was admitted because of anaemia and epigastric discomfort with a history of Helicobacter-pylori associated gastric ulceration. physical examination and bloodchemical values were otherwise normal. endoscopy revealed duodenal ulceration but the biopsies taken from the ulceration did not give any evidence of malignancy or residual helicobacter pylori infection. But MRT showed a circular intramural tumour of the duodenum. On laparotomy a large duodenal tumour adherent to the pancreatic head was found and a Whipple procedure was performed. CONCLUSION: Apart from describing the case of a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of the duodenum, this report illustrates the diagnostic difficulties with uncommon neoplasm's of the duodenopancreatic region and the value of MRT prior to resection of a duodenopancreatic mass.
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ranking = 0.00079636277860576
keywords = neoplasm
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20/165. Development of duodenal cancer in a patient with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    A Japanese woman with familial adenomatous polyposis in whom a duodenal ampullary adenoma underwent malignant change during a 10-year follow-up period is reported. After restorative proctocolectomy in 1989, and extensive small bowel resection for desmoid disease in 1991, regular surveillance duodenoscopies, including three to nine biopsies (mean, 4.8) were performed annually or biannually. Until 1995, the endoscopic findings of duodenal polyposis (including an ampullary polyp) did not progress and the histopathology did not worsen. In 1996, there was an increase in the number and size of the duodenal polyps, and the ampulla of vater looked enlarged. Open surgery was discussed but not proceeded with because of the risk for short bowel syndrome. In January 1998, she was admitted with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. duodenoscopy and radiological examination revealed that an advanced ampullary cancer had developed, and histopathology revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Multiple hepatic metastases and ascites led to her death, in June, 1998. This in-vivo demonstration of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence highlights current limitations in the surveillance and treatment of duodenal lesions.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = cancer
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