Cases reported "Dysarthria"

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1/19. Speech recognition training for enhancing written language generation by a traumatic brain injury survivor.

    Impairments in motor functioning, language processing, and cognitive status may impact the written language performance of traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. One strategy to minimize the impact of these impairments is to use a speech recognition system. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of mild dysarthria and mild cognitive-communication deficits secondary to TBI on a 19-year-old survivor's mastery and use of such a system-specifically, Dragon Naturally Speaking. Data included the % of the participant's words accurately perceived by the system over time, the participant's accuracy over time in using commands for navigation and error correction, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the participant's written texts generated with and without the use of the speech recognition system. Results showed that Dragon NaturallySpeaking was approximately 80% accurate in perceiving words spoken by the participant, and the participant quickly and easily mastered all navigation and error correction commands presented. Quantitatively, the participant produced a greater amount of text using traditional word processing and a standard keyboard than using the speech recognition system. Minimal qualitative differences appeared between writing samples. Discussion of factors that may have contributed to the obtained results and that may affect the generalization of the findings to other TBI survivors is provided.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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2/19. Effects of intensive voice treatment (the Lee Silverman voice Treatment [LSVT]) on ataxic dysarthria: a case study.

    This study examined the effects of intensive voice treatment (the Lee Silverman voice Treatment [LSVT]) on ataxic dysarthria in a woman with cerebellar dysfunction secondary to thiamine deficiency. Perceptual and acoustic measures were made on speech samples recorded just before the LSVT program was administered, immediately after it was administered, and at 9 months follow-up. Results indicate short- and long-term improvement in phonatory and articulatory functions, speech intelligibility, and overall communication and job-related activity following LSVT. This study's findings provide initial support for the application of LSVT to the treatment of speech disorders accompanying ataxic dysarthria. Potential neural mechanisms that may underlie the effects of loud phonation and LSVT are addressed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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3/19. Restoration of intelligible speech 13 years post-head injury.

    This case study demonstrates the efficacy of treatment of a patient with severe dysarthria long after the accepted period of 'neurological recovery'. A physiological approach to treatment was utilized and resulted in a change from non-verbal communication to functional verbal communication.
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ranking = 2
keywords = communication
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4/19. When only the right hemisphere is left: studies in language and communication.

    An adult of above normal intelligence, BL, underwent left hemispherectomy at age five, and subsequently graduated from college and has been regularly employed. Using standardized neuropsychological instruments, previous extensive testing had revealed optimal performance for a hemispherectomized subject. To probe communicative abilities in greater detail, and to examine current questions about linguistic superiority of the left hemisphere and "crowding" of right hemisphere functions, 12 additional protocols were administered. BL performed at normal or above on nearly all protocols. However, performance on production of phonemically complex words was effortful, and deficits were seen on two tests requiring comprehension of linguistic contrasts in prosody (Linguistic Prosody Test) and syntax (the Active-Passive Test). These findings support previous claims of reduced ability in specific, circumscribed linguistic functions in the left hemispherectomized person, and lead to suggestions for further testing of communicative competence in individuals with a single intact hemisphere.
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ranking = 4
keywords = communication
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5/19. The role of music therapy in an interdisciplinary approach to address functional communication in complex neuro-communication disorders: a case report.

    PURPOSE: This paper presents a case report of collaborative work between speech and language therapy (SLT) and music therapy (MT) in the case of an individual presenting with complex communication difficulties and lability caused by pseudo-Parkinsonian vascular disease. DESIGN: MT intervention was used to investigate whether participation could be enabled in a client presenting with complex problems as well as facilitate change in communication parameters which remained unresponsive to conventional SLT intervention. A single case design measured communication and well-being parameters using pre-, during and post-intervention measures. In addition, analysis of the client's musical responses was undertaken to examine changes in vocal functioning which are involved in communication. RESULTS: Analysis of the client's performance during MT intervention revealed improvements in prosody and phonation, with positive reports of participation, reduced incidence of lability and improvements in measures of well-being. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the value of such collaborative working in addition to making recommendations for the modification of existing treatment protocols. The findings highlight that fatigue is a major consideration when working with people with severe and complex clinical presentations.
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ranking = 12
keywords = communication
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6/19. Speech deterioration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case study.

    Few detailed reports have been published on the nature of speech and voice changes during the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The subject of this case study is a woman who was diagnosed as having ALS with bulbar signs at the age of 53. speech intelligibility, pulmonary function, and selected speech and voice functions were tested during an approximately 2-year course of her disease. Over this period, her speech intelligibility, as measured by a multiple-choice word identification test, declined from 98% to 48%. Phonetic features that were most affected during the intelligibility decline included voicing contrast for syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants, place of articulation contrasts for lingual consonants, manner of articulation for lingual consonants, stop versus nasal manner of production, features related to the liquid consonants, and various features related to syllable shape. An acoustic measure, average slope of the second-formant frequency, declined in association with the intelligibility reduction and is thought to reflect the loss of lingual motoneurons. Her pulmonary function also declined over the observation interval, with particularly severe reduction in measures of air flow. Oral diadochokinesis and measures of vocal function (including jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise ratio) were highly variable across test sessions. These results are discussed in terms of the challenges they present to sensitive assessment of change and to management of the communication disability in ALS.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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7/19. Neurogenic stuttering as a manifestation of stroke and a mask of dysphonia.

    R. L. was a 52-year-old man who was referred for an SLP consultation to determine the nature of his fluency disorder, whether or not treatment would be beneficial, and finally whether resumption of pre-trauma vocational status was feasible. The patient was involved in a motor vehicle accident with no resulting detectable trauma. However, shortly after the accident, R. L. developed a severe dysfluency that was later described as cortical stuttering. We reviewed the medical and rehabilitation work-up that attempted to determine whether the communication disorder was functional or organic in origin. Once the fluency disorder was determined to be caused by a suspected small, focal, hemispheric lesion, a five-month treatment program was undertaken that used a noval prosthetic approach to restore fluency. Once fluency was restored with the use of an artificial larynx, a residual anomia was detected and treated. The case of R. L. illustrates a stuttering that appeared to be caused by a combined neurogenic dyspraxic (vocal control), dysarthric (motor control), and dysnomic (word-finding) dysfluency. The literature on this issue was reviewed and the underlying mechanism of recovery was discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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8/19. Unexpected recovery of functional communication following a prolonged period of mutism post-head injury.

    A case is presented of a seven-year-old female who showed an unexpected recovery of functional communication skills following a prolonged period of traumatic mutism subsequent to a severe closed head injury. The patient initially presented as comatose. A period of mutism subsequent to the coma extended for ten months. Following this protracted period of mutism the child demonstrated rapid and unexpected recovery of functional communication skills, despite the persistence of higher level language deficits. The findings of a neurological assessment, neuroradiological assessment and battery of speech/language tests are described. The present case is discussed in light of the existing literature on recovery from paediatric head trauma.
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ranking = 6
keywords = communication
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9/19. Long-term treatment of severe dysarthria: a case study.

    This case study describes the long-term treatment and changing symptoms in a single subject with dysarthria secondary to basilar artery thrombosis. Initially, the subject was anarthric. Treatment efforts thereafter were directed toward modifying speech respiration, velopharyngeal function, articulatory precision, speech intensity, and speech intelligibility. A variety of treatment and measurement techniques are illustrated. The behavioral change resulting from each of the treatments was small. However, when combined, these small gains in conjunction with some neurological recovery resulted in significantly improved communication and quality of life for this subject. Implications for management of similar subjects are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = communication
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10/19. rehabilitation of communication impairment in dystonia musculorum deformans.

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids were used in three young, intellectually normal patients with dystonia musculorum deformans (DMD) who had severe speech and writing impediments. These aids included speech therapy, communication boards, and voice synthesizers for verbal communication and typewriters, memowriters, and computer software and printers for written communication. At times customized accessing was needed which required specific adaptive modifications. Implementation of the AAC aids system was determined effective for DMD patients in view of the intellect-sparing nature of the disorder. Improvement was hampered by the progressive nature of the disease and by the emotional stress of accepting the long-term use of AAC. Correct and early diagnosis of communication impediments are crucial for the appropriate AAC aids prescription and implementation. An AAC protocol is suggested to meet the special communication needs of DMD patients.
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ranking = 10
keywords = communication
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