Cases reported "Dysarthria"

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1/300. Syntax PAL: a system to improve the written syntax of language-impaired users.

    In our work with children who have difficulty with spelling or with the physical action of writing, we have found a number of children who also have difficulty with written grammar. As an extension of PAL, an existing predictive spelling and typing aid, we have developed a writing aid to help these children with sentence construction. The enhanced system uses the syntax of the initial part of a sentence to enhance the position in the prediction list of syntactically correct words. It was postulated that this would discourage the use of incorrect syntax and encourage the use of correct syntax. In two case studies, the use of Syntax PAL significantly improved the quality and quantity of one child's written output, but had little effect on the other child's work. ( info)

2/300. Transient mutism resolving into cerebellar speech after brain stem infarction following a traumatic injury of the vertebral artery in a child.

    A 3.7-year-old girl presented with an anterior neck injury followed by progressive subcutaneous emphysema and loss of consciousness. After resuscitation, a laceration on the first tracheal cartilage was closed surgically. As she was extubated one week later, she was found to have right hemiplegia and muteness. MRI showed a T2-bright lesion on the tegmentum of the left midbrain down to the upper pons. Right vertebral angiography disclosed an intimal flap with stenosis at the C3 vertebral level presumably caused by a fracture of the right C3 transverse process later confirmed in a cervical 3D-CT scan. Her muteness lasted for 10 days, after which she began to utter some comprehensible words in a dysarthric fashion. Her neurological deficits showed improvement within 3 months of her admission. Transient mutism after brain stem infarction has not been reported previously. We discuss the anatomical bases for this unusual reversible disorder in the light of previous observations and conclude that bilateral damage to the dentatothalamocortical fibers at the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle may have been responsible for her transient mutism. ( info)

3/300. hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine.

    Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified. ( info)

4/300. Atypical herpes simplex encephalitis presenting as operculum syndrome.

    This case report demonstrates the course of herpes simplex virus cerebritis in a patient aged 7 years 2 months who presented with non-specific symptoms followed by an epileptic attack. Subcortical, bilateral opercular and bilateral thalamic lesions were detected, but the temporal and inferior frontal lobes were spared. The patient developed anarthria, impairment of mastication and swallowing consistent with operculum syndrome. diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging and elevation of oligoclonal antibodies specific to herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid after an unexpectedly negative polymerase chain reaction test. ( info)

5/300. dysarthria associated with giant cell arteritis.

    Over a one month period, a 74-year-old man developed typical features of giant cell arteritis (GCA) including visual changes, headache, scalp tenderness, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition, he had reproducible painless dysarthria that was precipitated by chewing or prolonged talking and was relieved by resting the jaw. The dysarthria with chewing along with the other classical symptoms of GCA subsided with treatment. To our knowledge this is the first report of painless dysarthria associated with GCA. ( info)

6/300. Acute dysarthria induced by low dose methotrexate therapy in a patient with erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: an unusual manifestation of neurotoxicity.

    Neurotoxicity has been associated on rare occasions with methotrexate therapy. We now report the case of a 71-year-old man with erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who developed symptoms of dysarthria and inco-ordination within 1 month of the initiation of oral methotrexate; discontinuation of the therapy then resulted in a gradual resolution of the problems. ( info)

7/300. Identical twins with mental retardation, dysarthria, progressive spastic paraplegia, and brachydactyly type E: a new syndrome or variant of Fitzsimmons-Guilbert syndrome?

    We report on concordantly affected female identical twins with mental retardation, dysarthria, progressive spastic paraplegia, and brachydactyly type E. The most similar condition reported is the syndrome described by Fitzsimmons and Guilbert in uniovular twins characterized by progressive spastic paraplegia, dysarthria, brachydactyly type E, and cone-shaped epiphyses. During the last 11 years a report of only one other patient with this syndrome has been published; hence, its phenotypic delineation may be only partial. Although our patients might expand the phenotypic spectrum of this syndrome, they may represent a new disorder. ( info)

8/300. Progressive dysarthria. case reports and a review of the literature.

    Two patients presenting with progressive dysarthria as the single initial manifestation of a neurodegenerative condition are described. The nature of the dysarthria as well as the additional symptoms that developed in the course of the disorder are very different in these two cases. Nevertheless, neuroimaging findings are strikingly similar and suggest bilateral involvement of posterior inferior frontal lobe structures, mainly in the dominant cerebral hemisphere. The clinical syndrome of these patients can therefore be considered an example of frontotemporal degeneration presenting without dementia or compartmental alteration, at least in the early stages. This broadens the clinical spectrum of frontotemporal degeneration and demonstrates the need for a syndromal subclassification of this nosological entity. ( info)

9/300. Real-time continuous visual biofeedback in the treatment of speech breathing disorders following childhood traumatic brain injury: report of one case.

    The efficacy of traditional and physiological biofeedback methods for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns was investigated in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An A-B-A-B single-subject experimental research design was utilized to provide the subject with two exclusive periods of therapy for speech breathing, based on traditional therapy techniques and physiological biofeedback methods, respectively. Traditional therapy techniques included establishing optimal posture for speech breathing, explanation of the movement of the respiratory muscles, and a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks focusing on establishing an appropriate level of sub-glottal air pressure, and improving the subject's control of inhalation and exhalation. The biofeedback phase of therapy utilized variable inductance plethysmography (or Respitrace) to provide real-time, continuous visual biofeedback of ribcage circumference during breathing. As in traditional therapy, a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks were devised to improve the subject's control of his respiratory pattern. Throughout the project, the subject's respiratory support for speech was assessed both instrumentally and perceptually. Instrumental assessment included kinematic and spirometric measures, and perceptual assessment included the Frenchay dysarthria Assessment, Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric speech, and analysis of a speech sample. The results of the study demonstrated that real-time continuous visual biofeedback techniques for modifying speech breathing patterns were not only effective, but superior to the traditional therapy techniques for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe TBI. These results show that physiological biofeedback techniques are potentially useful clinical tools for the remediation of speech breathing impairment in the paediatric dysarthric population. ( info)

10/300. dysarthria during basilar artery balloon occlusion.

    A 49-year-old woman presenting with recurrent, reversible brainstem symptoms and a distal basilar artery aneurysm underwent balloon test occlusion. Five minutes after balloon inflation she developed a reversible isolated dysarthria. Despite failing the test occlusion (and after an additional brainstem event), the patient underwent surgery with placement of a clip across the basilar artery. The operation was tolerated without complication. The authors conclude that 1) pure dysarthria may be a symptom of temporary basilar artery occlusion and 2) balloon testing may overestimate the risk of basilar artery clipping. ( info)
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