Cases reported "Dysarthria"

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11/300. Bilateral contemporaneous posteroventral pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: neuropsychological and neurological side effects. Report of four cases and review of the literature.

    The authors report the underestimated cognitive, mood, and behavioral complications in patients who have undergone bilateral contemporaneous pallidotomy, as seen in their early experience with functional neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) that is accompanied by severe motor fluctuations before pallidal stimulation. Four patients, not suffering from dementia, with advanced (Hoehn and Yahr Stages III-IV), medically untreatable PD featuring severe "on-off" fluctuations underwent bilateral contemporaneous posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP). All patients were evaluated according to the Core Assessment Program for Intracerebral Transplantations (CAPIT) protocol without positron emission tomography scans but with additional neuropsychological cognitive, mood, and behavior testing. For the first 3 to 6 months postoperatively, all patients showed a mean improvement of motor scores on the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), in the best "on" (21%) and worst "off" (40%) UPDRS III motor subscale, a mean 30% improvement in the UPDRS II activities of daily living (ADL) subscore, and 60% on the UPDRS IV complications of treatment subscale. Dyskinesia disappeared almost completely, and the mean daily duration of the off time was reduced by an average of 60%. Despite these good results in the CAPIT scores, one patient experienced a partially regressive corticobulbar syndrome with dysphagia, dysarthria, and increased drooling. No emotional lability was found in this patient, but he did demonstrate severe bilateral postoperative pretarsal blepharospasm (apraxia of eyelid opening), which interfered with walking and which required treatment with high-dose subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin. No patient showed visual field defects or hemiparesis, but postoperative depression, changes in personality, behavior, and executive functions were seen in two individuals. Postoperative abulia was reported by the family of one patient, who lost his preoperative aggressiveness and drive in terms of ADL, speech, business, family life, and hobbies, and became more sleepy and fatigued. One patient reported postoperative mental automatisms, such as compulsive mental counting, and circular thoughts and reasoning during off phases; postoperative depression was found in two patients. However, none of the patients demonstrated these symptoms during intraoperative microelectrode stimulation. These findings are compatible with previous reports on bilateral pallidal lesions. A progressive lowering of UPDRS subscores was seen after 12 months, consistent with the progression of the disease. Bilateral simultaneous pallidotomy may be followed by emotional, behavioral, and cognitive deficits such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and loss of psychic autoactivation-abulia, as well as disabling corticobulbar dysfunction and apraxia of eyelid opening, in addition to previously described motor and visual field deficits, which make this surgery undesirable even though significant improvement in motor deficits can be achieved. ( info)

12/300. Brainstem anesthesia presenting as dysarthria.

    After having a retrobulbar injection for anesthesia before cataract surgery, a patient developed dysarthria. This was the presenting sign for penetration of the optic nerve sheath by the retrobulbar injection, with subsequent brainstem anesthesia. Thereafter, the patient demonstrated cranial nerve dysfunctions with tongue deviation, tachycardia, hypertension, and contralateral sixth and third nerve palsies. I believe this is the first documented case in which dysarthria is the presenting sign for brainstem anesthesia resulting from a retrobulbar injection. ( info)

13/300. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in a child with congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome.

    A 9-year-old male with congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome is described. He had pseudobulbar palsy, mental retardation, and intractable epilepsy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of the brain demonstrated bilateral perisylvian malformations and a diffuse pachygyric appearance. At 8 years of age, he had episodes of excessive drooling, fluctuating impairment of consciousness, unsteady sitting, and frequent head drop that lasted several days. The electroencephalogram demonstrated continuous diffuse slow spike and waves. These findings suggested atypical absence status epilepticus. Intravenous administration of diazepam resulted in transient improvement of clinical and electroencephalographic findings. status epilepticus recurred within several minutes after diazepam administration. Although no patient has been reported to have a history of status epilepticus among those affected by this syndrome, it seems that atypical absence status can occur more frequently than expected, as seen in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. After recognition and confirmation of nonconvulsive status epilepticus, immediate treatment must be attempted. ( info)

14/300. history of Joubert syndrome and a 30-year follow-up of the original proband.

    The 1960s were a period of great flowering in the recognition of neurologic disorders in children. The so-called ataxic cerebral palsies were an especially fertile field waiting for clarification. Congenital ataxia coupled with hyperpnea-apnea, abnormal eye movements, and retardation was identified as an autosomal-recessive syndrome eponimically associated with the senior author, Marie Joubert. The disorder, though rare, is increasingly recognized and a lay society dedicated to family support and research has been formed. In preparation for a recent symposium the original proband was re-examined 30 years later and the manifestations in adults clarified. Severe dysarthria was the most striking feature in this man, the hyperpnea-apnea had diminished, and the abnormal eye movements were less striking. Ataxia was still present but not severe. Poor judgment and borderline intelligence rounded out the clinical picture. Modern imaging has clarified, in part, the anatomic basis of this syndrome. ( info)

15/300. Knowing no fear.

    People with brain injuries involving the amygdala are often poor at recognizing facial expressions of fear, but the extent to which this impairment compromises other signals of the emotion of fear has not been clearly established. We investigated N.M., a person with bilateral amygdala damage and a left thalamic lesion, who was impaired at recognizing fear from facial expressions. N.M. showed an equivalent deficit affecting fear recognition from body postures and emotional sounds. His deficit of fear recognition was not linked to evidence of any problem in recognizing anger (a common feature in other reports), but for his everyday experience of emotion N.M. reported reduced anger and fear compared with neurologically normal controls. These findings show a specific deficit compromising the recognition of the emotion of fear from a wide range of social signals, and suggest a possible relationship of this type of impairment with alterations of emotional experience. ( info)

16/300. Vagal and hypoglossal Bell's palsy.

    A 7-year-old boy was referred because of a sudden change to nasal speech, dysarthria for words with explosive consonants in speech, and nasal regurgitation of fluids. The symptoms arose over 1 week following a capricious episode of acute asthmatic bronchitis. Physical and neurologic examinations were normal except for a left deviation of the uvula, accompanied by a "curtain" movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall against the opposite side, and a left deviation of the protruded tongue. No vascular, traumatic, infectious, neoplastic, or neurologic causes could be identified. No therapy was administered. Full recovery occurred 4 months later. The diagnosis was idiopathic vagal and right hypoglossal nerve palsy (Bell's palsy). ( info)

17/300. An instrument for the multiparameter assessment of speech.

    This paper describes the development of SNORS , a clinical, user-friendly instrument for measurement of the articulators during speech. The design criteria for the instrument were based upon a wide-ranging review of current practice and available techniques. SNORS allows objective assessment of the function and co-ordination of key articulators. Appropriate targeting of therapy is therefore possible. Visual feedback is provided, for therapy, and an objective measurement of outcome is easily obtained. Preliminary results are presented. These suggest that the instrument will prove extremely useful in the assessment and management of many speech disorders. ( info)

18/300. Bilateral opercular syndrome caused by perinatal difficulties.

    Four patients with pseudobulbar palsy, mental retardation and various degrees of speech disturbance associated with perinatal difficulties are described as having an acquired type of opercular syndrome. There were two patients with fetal bradycardia and three with subarachnoid haemorrhage and neonatal convulsion. magnetic resonance imaging revealed cortical atrophy in the bilateral opercula with some signal abnormalities in the underlying white matter in common. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) also confirmed the presence of hypoperfusion in the regions. Although the opercular syndrome is a clinical entity with a multitude of underlying pathologies, perinatal difficulties could be an important cause of the acquired type. ( info)

19/300. Episodic ataxia: a case report and review of literature.

    This report describes the clinical features of a 29 year female presenting with a 3 years history of episodes of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and nystagmus lasting 3-5 days, recurring almost every month. sleep disturbance and buzzing in ears were noted 3-4 days before each episode. No other precipitant factor was present. family history was negative. She was diagnosed as a case of episodic ataxia type-2 and was successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. She was asymptomatic at 2 year followup. ( info)

20/300. Woodhouse and Sakati syndrome (MIM 241080): report of a new patient.

    A 32-year-old male with Woodhouse Sakati syndrome (MIM 241080) is described. Two of the proband's brothers also have diabetes mellitus and similar facial features, however they are not dysarthric. An affected older brother died of an unknown cause at age 30. This confirms autosomal recessive inheritance. ( info)
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