Cases reported "Dyskinesias"

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1/33. Emergency department presentations of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurological disorder characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowness of movement (bradykinesia), and gait instability. In early disease, PD is well managed in an office setting, however, as the disease progresses, a variety of syndromes may result in emergency department visits. The scenarios most likely to require an emergent evaluation are severe motor "off" periods with immobility, involuntary movements (dyskinesia), psychosis, acute confusion, panic disorder, and pain. Other less frequent presentations are also discussed. This article uses illustrative cases to provide a framework to discuss emergency department diagnosis and management issues in caring for these patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dyskinesia
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2/33. clozapine-associated extrapyramidal reaction.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of extrapyramidal reaction associated with a dosage increase of clozapine. CASE SUMMARY: A 44-year-old white man with a 20-year history of chronic paranoid schizophrenia was admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility. His prior medications restarted on admission were clozapine 650 mg at bedtime, haloperidol 10 mg at bedtime, clonazepam 2 mg/d, and aspirin 325 mg/d. Two days after admission (hospital day 3), clozapine and clonazepam were discontinued, and he was prescribed haloperidol 5 mg every morning and 10 mg every evening. Stabilization occurred over the following 24 days, with progressively lower dosages of haloperidol and increasing dosages of clozapine. haloperidol was discontinued on day 24. On day 47, the patient was agitated and making bizarre statements; thus, the morning dose of clozapine was increased by 50 mg (total 450 mg/d). On day 48 at 2200, a dystonic reaction was diagnosed; he received intramuscular diphenhydramine 50 mg, which caused the reaction to subside. At the time of the adverse reaction, he was prescribed clozapine 450 mg/d, vitamin e 400 IU three times daily, aspirin 325 mg/d, and acetaminophen, milk of magnesia, and Maalox as needed. DISCUSSION: Although the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) is significantly lower with clozapine than with conventional agents, elevated clozapine blood concentrations have been reported to cause EPS; other reports have cited severe dystonias and dyskinesias on abrupt clozapine withdrawal. Considering the medications prescribed at the time and the discontinuation of haloperidol 24 days before the event, clozapine was the most likely cause of the extrapyramidal reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of anticipated safety associated with novel antipsychotics such as clozapine, reports of dystonic reactions must be taken into account and patients monitored appropriately.
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ranking = 1.0080453400268
keywords = dyskinesia, dystonia
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3/33. fatal outcome in a case of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2.

    Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a very rare congenital (autosomal recessive) condition with fetal onset. Only a few cases have been published on the basis of both clinical data (symptoms/neuroradiological imaging) and autopsy results. This paper reports on such a case involving a 1.5-year-old male infant. The child suffered from severe psychomotor delay, extrapyramidal dyskinesia and epileptic seizures, but did not exhibit signs of spinal muscular atrophy as related to PCH type 1. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the age of 6 months demonstrated olivo-pontine and bilateral cerebellar hypoplasia. The boy was unexpectedly found dead. autopsy disclosed a severe aspiration of gastric contents as the final cause of death. The neuropathological examination confirmed PCH type 2 (according to Barth [brain Dev., 15 (1993) 411-422]) with marked microcephaly and olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia. Histologically, decreased density of olivo-pontine neurons, reduction of granular and Purkinje's cell layers of the cerebellum, slight astroglial proliferation and fragmented appearance of the dentate nuclei were observed. The immunohistochemical expression pattern was determined using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein, synaptophysin and neurofilament protein. Summarizing, typical features of PCH type 2 were present and proved by clinical course, MRI and autopsy. Despite severe symptoms due to a natural disease this rare neurogenetic entity can become of forensic interest, when sudden unexpected death occurs.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dyskinesia
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4/33. life-threatening dystonia-dyskinesias in a child: successful treatment with bilateral pallidal stimulation.

    We report a 13-year-old boy who developed severe, refractory dystonia-dyskinesias as an abrupt worsening of a previously nonprogressive movement disorder. The movements became continuous, requiring artificial respiration and continuous sedation in the intensive-care unit. Various drugs and drug combinations failed to achieve control. The child was then treated successfully with bilateral pallidal (GPi) stimulation as shown in the videotape. Four months later and without medication, the boy regained autonomous gait and audible speech; his neurologic condition continues to improve.
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ranking = 5.0402267001342
keywords = dyskinesia, dystonia
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5/33. Functional laryngeal dyskinesia: an important cause of stridor.

    Functional laryngeal dyskinesia is a disorder that presents with stridor. Failure to recognize its features can result in inappropriate investigation and treatment for a condition that has a psychogenic origin. The key feature in diagnosis is paradoxical vocal fold adduction on inspiration, as seen on fibre-optic nasendoscopy. This phenomenon together with the associated stridor may disappear after distraction techniques or when the patient is asleep. We present five such cases which presented to hospitals in south west london over a 12 month period.
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ranking = 5
keywords = dyskinesia
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6/33. Delayed onset of hemidystonia and hemiballismus following head injury: a clinicopathological correlation. Case report.

    The authors report the case of a young man who suffered multiple injuries in a motor vehicle accident, the most significant of which arose in the brain, creating an unusual clinical syndrome. After experiencing an initial coma for several days, the patient was found to have a right-sided homonymous hemianopsia and a right hemiparesis, which was more marked at the shoulder and was accompanied by preservation of finger movement. Dystonic movements appeared 2 months later and progressed, along with increased spasticity on volition, to severe uncontrolled arm movements at 2 years postinjury. This motor disorder continued to worsen during the following 6 years prior to the patient's death. At autopsy, the left side of the brain was observed to have marked atrophy of the optic tract, a partial lesion of the posterior portion of the medial segment of the globus pallidus (GP), and a reduction in the size of the internal capsule at the level of the GP, suggesting impaired circulation to these areas at the time of injury. The isolated lesion of the internal segment of the GP was the presumed cause of the dystonia, acting through an alteration in thalamic inhibition. The atrophic subthalamic nucleus was the probable cause of the hemiballismus. The authors speculate that this and other delayed and progressive features of this case were the result of an active, but disordered, adaptive process that failed to compensate and, instead, caused even greater problems than the original injury.
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ranking = 0.040226700134226
keywords = dystonia
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7/33. Presentation of striatal hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI in patients with hemiballism-hemichorea caused by non-ketotic hyperglycemia: report of seven new cases and a review of literature.

    Recent studies have shown unique clinicoradiologic characteristics in patients with hemiballism-hemichorea (HB-HC) caused by non-ketotic hyperglycemia; however, there is still a limited number of patients being reported. We report 7 patients (3 males and 4 females) with this type of dyskinesia, whose ages ranged from 60 to 84 years. brain CT of these patients showed hyperdensity in the contralateral striatum, corresponding with MRI studies that showed an increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and a decreased signal on T2-weighted images. After metabolic control had been achieved, the hyperkinetic state of these patients abruptly ceased. Follow-up neuroimaging studies in 2 patients documentied complete resolution of the striatal hyperintensity on brain CT and MRI after 3 months and 6 months, respectively. A review of patients with HB-HC caused by non-ketotic hyperglycemia reported formerly and in the present study shows that the dyskinesia tends to occur in aged diabetic patients. The age of patients with dyskinesia secondary to cerebral infarction is generelly much lower. We also found that 86% (30 out of 35 cases) patients reported with HB-HC caused by non-ketotic hyperglycemia were Asians. The prognosis of the dyskinesia was excellent, and the radiological abnormalities are completely reversible.
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ranking = 4
keywords = dyskinesia
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8/33. A new neurological entity manifesting as involuntary movements and dysarthria with possible abnormal copper metabolism.

    A few patients with an affected CNS involving abnormalities in copper metabolism have been described that do not fit any known nosological entities such as Wilson's disease or Menkes' disease.Three sporadic patients (two men and one woman) were examined with involuntary movements and dysarthria associated with abnormal concentrations of serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin, and urinary copper excretion. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred at the age of 15 to 17 years. The common clinical symptoms were involuntary movements and dysarthria. The involuntary movements included dystonia in the neck, myoclonus in the shoulder, athetosis in the neck, and rapid orobuccal movements. The dysarthria consisted of unclear, slow, and stuttering speech. Two of the three patients did not have dementia. A cousin of the female patient had been diagnosed as having Wilson's disease and had died of liver cirrhosis. Laboratory findings showed a mild reduction in serum copper and ceruloplasmin concentrations, whereas urinary copper excretion was significantly reduced in all three patients. Two of the three patients showed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia on T2 weighted brain MRI.In conclusion, the unique findings of involuntary movements, dysarthria, and abnormal serum copper and urinary copper concentrations suggest that the three patients may constitute a new clinical entity that is distinct from either Wilson's or Menkes disease.
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ranking = 0.0080453400268453
keywords = dystonia
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9/33. Tracheal dyskinesia associated with midline abnormality: embryological hypotheses and therapeutic implications.

    Abnormalities of tracheal rigidity, which may lead to the collapse of the airway during expiration and consequent complications, characterize two groups of disorders: tracheomalacia (weakness of the anterior cartilaginous arc of the trachea) and tracheal dyskinesia (dysfunction of the posterior membranous trachea). Tracheal dyskinesia can either be isolated or associated with a more complex syndrome of malformations: esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula and laryngotracheal cleft. Although our knowledge of the embryological development of the tracheoesophageal axis remains limited, the existence of these associations suggests that tracheal dyskinesia is of congenital origin. The presentation of three clinical cases demonstrates that the coexistence of a midline malformation and of tracheal dyskinesia complicates the therapeutic management of the first malformation. In particular, the postoperative follow-up is often more difficult, and a long-term tracheostomy is often required (sometimes for several years). However, it must be pointed out that tracheal dyskinesia, even in the associated forms, has a good long-term prognosis, since spontaneous resolution as the child grows up is the rule.
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ranking = 9
keywords = dyskinesia
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10/33. Consequences of oral rehabilitation on dyskinesia in adults with Down's syndrome: a clinical report.

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate that the presence of orofacial dyskinesia is often owing to underlying facial dysmorphology in persons with Down's syndrome. A series of cases is presented where orofacial dyskinesia was successfully treated by therapy establishing occlusal stability. The diagnosis of dyskinesia owing to dysmorphology should be precluded before any link with the degree of intellectual disability or neurological deficit is presumed. A multidisciplinary approach may be necessary to diagnose and treat these patients.
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ranking = 7.0019769184974
keywords = dyskinesia, orofacial
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