Cases reported "Dyskinesias"

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11/33. movement disorders induced by peripheral trauma.

    movement disorders induced by central nervous system trauma are well recognized. However, over the last few years, attention has been drawn to the role of peripherally induced movement disorders. We describe three patients presenting respectively dystonia, tremor and choreoathetosis associated with tremor and dystonia of the body parts previously exposed to traumatic injuries. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not entirely known, but functional changes in afferent neuronal input to the spinal cord and secondary affection of higher brain stem and subcortical centers are probably involved.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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12/33. Neuromotor dysfunction in early psychosis.

    Neuromotor dysfunction, particularly extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPSS), plays an important role in the assessment and treatment of patients in the early stages of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. By blocking dopamine D2 receptors, antipsychotic medications can produce EPSS, including tardive dyskinesia. EPSS is also observed in a third or more of patients first presenting with a psychotic disorder, prior to initiation of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy. This suggests that abnormalities in neuromotor control may be an integral component of the brain mechanisms associated with psychosis. Atypical antipsychotic agents can alleviate psychosis without inducing EPSS. Preexisting EPSS may be corrected.
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ranking = 62.147777263811
keywords = dyskinesia
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13/33. Lesioning the thalamus for dyskinesia.

    Recent advances on understanding the pallidothalamic relation lead us to perform Vim-Vo thalamotomy (combined thalamic lesion in ventralis intermedius nucleus and ventralis oralis nucleus) for cases with dyskinesia. In our recent series of thalamotomies, there are 12 cases of dyskinesia caused by various etiologies. Therefore the clinical manifestation of the involuntary movement was different in each case, including, more or less, some elements of irregular involuntary hyperkinetic movement. Stereotactic operation was performed using Leksell's apparatus aided by Surgiplan and MRI. The Vim nucleus was identified by physiological study using microelectrodes. High background activity and kinesthetic neurons are reliable indicators of Vim nucleus (but only for the lateral part). Then, selective coagulation was made by dual coagulation needles. Since the Vo nucleus is located just rostral to the Vim nucleus, the coagulation needle was turned toward the anterior part to partly cover the Vo nucleus. Thus, selective Vim-Vo thalamotomy was shown to be quite successful for the treatment of dyskinesia.
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ranking = 435.03444084667
keywords = dyskinesia
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14/33. Hemiballism after subthalamotomy in patients with Parkinson's disease: report of 2 cases.

    The occurrence of persistent hemiballism after subthalamotomy for Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been described as frequently as mild or transient dyskinesia. We report on 2 patients with advanced PD who developed hemiballism and/or dyskinesia after subthalamotomy. One patient with a small lesion confined to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) developed persistent hemiballism; the other with a larger lesion involving the STN and also the zona incerta presented with a transient dyskinesia in a single limb. We conclude that a precise STN lesion might bear a potential risk of persistent hemiballism.
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ranking = 186.44333179143
keywords = dyskinesia
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15/33. Hemiballism with insular infarction as first manifestation of Takayasu's arteritis in association with chronic hepatitis B.

    BACKGROUND: Takayasu's arteritis is a chronic inflammatory idiopathic disease involving large arteries like the aorta and its primary branches. Cell-mediated autoimmunity leading to vascular injury has been suspected in its pathogenesis although the antigen inducing the process remains unknown. CASE REPORT: A 50-year-old male patient suffered from acute hemiballism. neuroimaging showed an infarction of right temporal insular cortex. Neurosonology and MR-angiography revealed bilateral long-distant subtotal stenosis of the common carotid artery and left-sided occlusion of the subclavian artery. Positive hepatitis B serology with active viral replication was found. In the absence of other vasculitis or inflammation markers, Takayasu's arteritis was diagnosed and steroid therapy was started. CONCLUSIONS: Unilateral insular lesions may lead to transient hemiballistic movements which could be the result of decreased inhibitory output of the insula to basal ganglia. The hepatitis b virus possibly contains a surface antigen inducing a specific cellular immune response leading to Takayasu's arteritis.
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ranking = 0.00071913855143753
keywords = idiopathic
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16/33. Restricted frontomesial epileptogenic focus generating dyskinetic behavior and laughter.

    PURPOSE: Substantial data are missing about the anatomic location of frontal regions supporting gelastic seizures. methods: We report the results of stereo-electro-encephalographic recordings performed over several distinct functional premotor and executive fields in a patient whose seizures were characterized by dyskinetic behavior and ictal laughter, in the absence of cerebral MRI abnormalities. RESULTS: The epileptogenic zone was circumscribed in the anterior and ventral part of the supplementary motor area and the underlying dorsal cingulate cortex. There were no or little spreading to cortical neighboring areas. The patient is seizure-free (follow-up of 27 months) after a stereotactic electric radiofrequency lesion of the epileptogenic focus. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that pericingulate premotor areas are involved in the triggering of the motor component of laughter. In this case, the coexistence of paroxysmal dyskinesias during laughter might reflect the involvement of specific compartment(s) of the basal ganglia.
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ranking = 62.147777263811
keywords = dyskinesia
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17/33. cerebrospinal fluid pterins and folates in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome: a new phenotype.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe three unrelated children with a distinctive variant of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) characterized by microcephaly, severe mental and motor retardation, dyskinesia or spasticity, and occasional seizures. RESULTS: neuroimaging showed bilateral calcification of basal ganglia and white matter. CSF glucose, protein, cell count, and interferon alpha were normal. Abnormal CSF findings included extremely high neopterin (293 to 814 nmol/L; normal 12 to 30 nmol/L) and biopterin (226 to 416 nmol/L; normal 15 to 40 nmol/L) combined with lowered 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (23 to 48 nmol/L; normal 64 to 182 nmol/L) concentrations in two patients. The absence of pleocytosis and normal CSF interferon alpha was a characteristic finding compared to the classic AGS syndrome. Genetic and enzymatic tests excluded disorders of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism, including mutation analysis of gtp cyclohydrolase feed-back regulatory protein. CSF investigations in three patients with classic AGS also showed increased pterins and partially lowered folate levels. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal overproduction of pterins is the first biochemical abnormality identified in patients with AGS variants. Long-term substitution with folinic acid (2-4 mg/kg/day) resulted in substantial clinical recovery with normalization of CSF folates and pterins in one patient and clinical improvement in another. The underlying defect remains unknown.
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ranking = 62.147777263811
keywords = dyskinesia
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18/33. Familial pediatric rapidly progressive extrapyramidal syndrome: is it Hallervorden-Spatz disease?

    The clinical features of two children of a family with rapidly progressive extrapyramidal-pyramidal-dementia complex have been described. Inheritance seems most likely to be autosomal recessive. magnetic resonance imaging results of brain were negative. Even so, the authors argued in favor of a diagnosis of Hallervorden-Spatz disease because the cases fulfilled the clinical criteria for diagnosis of this disease. Apart from the negative magnetic resonance findings, the other unusual feature was the early development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.Few conditions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of a childhood-onset rapidly progressive extrapyramidal syndrome. Such conditions include Wilson's disease, Hallervorden-Spatz disease (HSD), juvenile form of Huntington's disease, juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, early-onset machado-joseph disease neuroacanthocytosis, storage disorders, and variant form of dopa-response dystonias (DRD). Rarer conditions are Leigh's disease, Lafora body disease, and dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy. HSD is a rare disorder characterized by progressive extrapyramidal dysfunction and dementia. Onset is most commonly in late childhood or early adolescence. The disease can be familial or sporadic. When familial, it is inherited recessively and has been linked to chromosome 20. Recently, a mutation in the pantothenate kinase (PANK2) gene on band 20pl3 has been described in patients with typical HSD. HSD produces typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in brain, aiding in antemortem diagnosis. The typical finding is of bilaterally symmetrical hyperintense signal changes in the external segment of globus pallidus, with surrounding hypointensity on T(2)-weighted image. These imaging features are fairly diagnostic and have been termed the "eye-of-the tiger sign". The hyperintensity represents pathologic changes, including gliosis, demyelination, neuronal loss, and axonal swelling, and the surrounding hypointensity is caused by loss of signal secondary to iron deposition. Described herein are the clinical aspects of a family with autosomal recessive inheritance with rapidly progressive extrapyramidal-pyramidal-dementia complex but with negative brain MRI results. The diagnosis should be considered a variant form of HSD.
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ranking = 62.647777263811
keywords = dyskinesia, dystonia
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19/33. movement disorders after head injury: diagnosis and management.

    head injury can cause extrapyramidal movement disorders such as tremors, parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, myoclonus, and tics. Pure adventitious movements are rare, but combinations with paresis, spasticity, apraxia, or ataxia occur in approximately 20% of cases of severe head injury, in many cases appearing or evolving in the months following the injury. Tremors may improve in time but many of the other syndromes tend to persist. Reversible causes such as medications or metabolic derangements are occasionally identifiable. Some of these adventitious movements can be improved using neuroactive drugs, botulinum toxin injections, or stereotactic brain surgery.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = dystonia
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20/33. A young onset Parkinson's patient: a case study.

    Young onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD) is defined as idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPPD) occurring in people between 21 and 40 years of age; it strikes approximately 5% of Parkinson's patients. YOPD has earlier onset of motor complications than later onset Parkinson's disease. Motor complications and disease progression are responsible for devastating morbidity. Current medical and surgical treatments can dramatically ameliorate motor complications and help maintain function and employment. Patient education, support, and advocacy provided by nursing staff can influence the treatment options for these patients, having a significant effect on the future course of the disease. This case history documents the course of a YOPD patient with unusually severe motor complications. He is the only patient at Puget sound neurology ever to develop rhabdomyolysis due to dyskinesias. Following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, his Parkinson's symptoms have improved dramatically, and his motor complications are significantly improved.
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ranking = 62.148496402362
keywords = dyskinesia, idiopathic
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