Cases reported "Dyskinesias"

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1/104. Hemiballismus and brain metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

    BACKGROUND: brain metastases from cervical carcinoma are rare. Accompanying symptoms depend on the location of the metastatic lesions. Hemiballismus refers to a rare movement disorder characterized by involuntary, large amplitude movements of the limbs of one side of the body. The area of the brain controlling the limb movement is in the subthalamic nucleus of the contralateral side. In contrast, the usual location of brain metastases from cervical cancer is in the frontal and parietal parenchyma. There have been reported cases of hemiballismus secondary to metastatic carcinoma of the breast, lung, and gall bladder. This is the first reported case of putative cervical cancer metastases associated with hemiballismus. CASE: A 38-year-old Caucasian female was diagnosed with FIGO stage II-B poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Para-aortic lymph nodes were positive for metastatic disease. The patient was treated by radiation with hydroxyurea chemosensitization. Four months after the initial diagnosis she presented with acute onset of hemiballismus. magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed a solitary lesion in the left cerebral peduncle extending into the inferior aspect of the left basal ganglia complex. The lesion was inaccessible to biopsy or excision. Palliative radiation therapy to the brain was unsuccessful and the patient expired 1 year following primary presentation. CONCLUSION: Treatment of hemiballismus is directed to its underlying causes. Some brain metastases from cervical cancer may be palliated or even cured by surgical resection and radiation therapy. Although not conclusive, it appears that hemiballismus in a setting of metastatic cervical cancer has a poor prognosis and little benefit from irradiation. ( info)

2/104. cluster headache-like disorder in childhood.

    This paper reviews the diagnostic features of cluster headache-like disorder and describes its presentation in childhood. Case note summaries of patients with this condition are presented in the context of a brief summary of the literature. Four patients (two girls; aged 12 to 15 years) with cluster headache-like disorder were seen over a period of four years in the paediatric neurology department of Birmingham Children's Hospital. Their histories and clinical courses are described. All had a history of "thrashing around" or bizarre behaviour during attacks, which had distracted attention from the headache and seemed to contribute to delay in diagnosis. It appears that cluster headache-like disorder does occur in childhood but is not common and can be mistaken for other conditions. A history of thrashing around accompanied by headache is very suggestive. Recognition of the symptoms in the general paediatric clinic would allow rapid diagnosis. ( info)

3/104. Non-ketotic hyperglycemia in a young woman, presenting as hemiballism-hemichorea.

    We report a 22-year-old girl presenting with acute onset left sided hemiballism-hemichorea (HH) and non-ketotic hyperglycemia (NKH). Initial brain CT revealed faint hyperdensities, sharply confined to the contralateral nucleus caudatus and putamen. Sequential MRI investigations yielded increasing hypersignal intensities on T1-weighted images and resolving hypodensities on T2-weighted images of the right striatum, leaving small sequelae in the head of the right caudate nucleus. NKH is an unusual cause of HH. The abnormalities seen in neuroimaging are rare, but seem to be quite specific to this syndrome. We give an update on current literature regarding the possible pathophysiological processes underlying this specific clinical entity. ( info)

4/104. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in a parkinsonian patient with preoperative deficits in speech and cognition: persistent improvement in mobility but increased dependency: a case study.

    We report a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease, including severe and frequent off periods with freezing of gait, moderate dysphonia, and some cognitive impairment, who underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. The patient was followed for 1 year after surgery, showing persistent good mobility without off periods and without freezing, which reverted completely when stopping the stimulation. There was deterioration of cognition as well as increased aphonia and drooling, all of which remained when the stimulation was turned off. The striking improvement in motor symptoms following STN stimulation was not paralleled by improvement in disability, probably as a result of a cognitive decline, suggesting a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease with dementia. We conclude that chronic STN stimulation is efficient in alleviating akinetic motor symptoms including gait freezing; this surgery should be offered before patients start to exhibit speech or cognitive disturbances. ( info)

5/104. Gabapentin treatment in a child with delayed-onset hemichorea/hemiballismus.

    A 13-year, 6-month-old female was evaluated for subacute onset of left-sided hemichorea/hemiballismus, with an old, right parietal, cortical, and subcortical stroke as the presumed cause. Treatment with gabapentin was initiated, with good results at 6-month follow-up. Discussion of the differential diagnosis and evaluation of delayed-onset movement disorders in children and the mechanism of action of gabapentin is included. ( info)

6/104. Emergency department presentations of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurological disorder characterized by tremor, muscle rigidity, slowness of movement (bradykinesia), and gait instability. In early disease, PD is well managed in an office setting, however, as the disease progresses, a variety of syndromes may result in emergency department visits. The scenarios most likely to require an emergent evaluation are severe motor "off" periods with immobility, involuntary movements (dyskinesia), psychosis, acute confusion, panic disorder, and pain. Other less frequent presentations are also discussed. This article uses illustrative cases to provide a framework to discuss emergency department diagnosis and management issues in caring for these patients. ( info)

7/104. Violent recurrent ballism associated with infections in two children with static encephalopathy.

    A variety of cerebral insults can result in static encephalopathy with developmental delays and relatively fixed motor and cognitive deficits. We describe two boys with static encephalopathy who experienced recurrent episodes of generalized, violent ballism seemingly provoked by relatively minor infectious illnesses or surgical procedures. These episodes first began at ages 14 and 9 years, respectively. The baseline clinical states included relatively mild choreoathetosis plus cognitive impairment, as well as spasticity and/or ataxia. These episodes of ballism developed over hours, remained for weeks, and ultimately returned to baseline. Neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, and benzodiazepines were only partially beneficial; responses corresponded to the degree of sedation. Potential for self-injury or rhabdomyolysis/myoglobinuria led to the use of general anesthetics or neuromuscular blocking agents during selected episodes. blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid studies, magnetic resonance imaging head scans, and electroencephalography revealed no diagnostic clues as to the precise causative factor precipitating these episodes. ( info)

8/104. clozapine-associated extrapyramidal reaction.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of extrapyramidal reaction associated with a dosage increase of clozapine. CASE SUMMARY: A 44-year-old white man with a 20-year history of chronic paranoid schizophrenia was admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility. His prior medications restarted on admission were clozapine 650 mg at bedtime, haloperidol 10 mg at bedtime, clonazepam 2 mg/d, and aspirin 325 mg/d. Two days after admission (hospital day 3), clozapine and clonazepam were discontinued, and he was prescribed haloperidol 5 mg every morning and 10 mg every evening. Stabilization occurred over the following 24 days, with progressively lower dosages of haloperidol and increasing dosages of clozapine. haloperidol was discontinued on day 24. On day 47, the patient was agitated and making bizarre statements; thus, the morning dose of clozapine was increased by 50 mg (total 450 mg/d). On day 48 at 2200, a dystonic reaction was diagnosed; he received intramuscular diphenhydramine 50 mg, which caused the reaction to subside. At the time of the adverse reaction, he was prescribed clozapine 450 mg/d, vitamin e 400 IU three times daily, aspirin 325 mg/d, and acetaminophen, milk of magnesia, and Maalox as needed. DISCUSSION: Although the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) is significantly lower with clozapine than with conventional agents, elevated clozapine blood concentrations have been reported to cause EPS; other reports have cited severe dystonias and dyskinesias on abrupt clozapine withdrawal. Considering the medications prescribed at the time and the discontinuation of haloperidol 24 days before the event, clozapine was the most likely cause of the extrapyramidal reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of anticipated safety associated with novel antipsychotics such as clozapine, reports of dystonic reactions must be taken into account and patients monitored appropriately. ( info)

9/104. Unilateral pure thalamic asterixis: clinical, electromyographic, and topographic patterns.

    Eleven patients (nine with infarctions and two with primary hematomas) with isolated thalamic lesions and contralateral asterixis were examined using a standard electromyographic and neuroimaging protocol. Asterixis was a short-duration phenomenon associated with a hemiataxia hypesthesia syndrome in all patients. Electromechanical synchronization was constant for the two silent period types. The anatomic data strongly suggest that ventral lateral or lateral posterior thalamus are concerned in the pathophysiology of thalamic asterixis. ( info)

10/104. Hypersexuality and hemiballism due to subthalamic infarction.

    OBJECTIVE: A 70-year-old right-handed man presented with a subthalamic infarction followed by persistent hypersexuality and hemiballism. A lacunar infarction 1 cm in diameter was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. We hypothesized that metabolic abnormalities would be detected in cortical areas related to his neurobehavioral symptoms. BACKGROUND: Statistical validation of the regional metabolic changes that may relate to neuropsychiatric symptoms has been elusive. Relating metabolic changes to neuropsychiatric symptoms is especially important in unique neurobehavioral cases. METHOD: Quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was obtained for a single-subject comparison with scans from 60 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Substantial glucose hypometabolism (p <0.001, uncorrected; [df = 56]) was identified in the subthalamic nucleus at the site of the lacunar infarction. Hypermetabolism (p <0.01) was identified within the basal forebrain and temporal lobes, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices (areas previously associated with hypersexuality), and striatum (p <0.001) ipsilateral to the stroke (areas known to relate to hemiballism). CONCLUSIONS: Single-subject statistical parametric mapping may improve our understanding of unique neurobehavioral cases. ( info)
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