Cases reported "Dyslexia, Acquired"

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21/44. Anatomical study of a posterior cerebral lesion producing dyslexia.

    After an "occipital lobectomy" that resulted in a severe dyslexia and a moderate dysgraphia-dyscalculia, anatomical study showed damage to the posterior extremity of the angular gyrus and degeneration in the posteroinferior pulvinar. This is in contrast to an earlier case that had degeneration in the anterosuperior pulvinor associated with a small anterior temporoparietal infarct and a well-documented receptive-expressive aphasia. However, the role of the pulvinar in speech function remains uncertain. The surgeon should be aware of the short distance between the angular gyrus and both the midline and the occipital pole because a lesion here during an "occipital lobectomy" produces a distressing and durable speech impairment.
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keywords = speech
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22/44. Visual agnosia: the dual deficit of perception and recognition.

    This case of visual agnosia is of special interest because of its causation by trauma, of the unusually long follow-up (10 1/2 years), and the evidence for dual deficits of recognition and perception. Although most of the findings were characteristic of associative visual agnosia with preserved perceptual function, the poor copying, contrasted to better spontaneous drawing, suggested apperceptive agnosia as well. prosopagnosia, alexia without agraphia, Balint's syndrome, visual static agnosia and simultanagnosia were also observed. The patient had persisting amnestic syndrome, but no dementia or aphasia. The responses to visual stimulation were perseverations, form confusions and confabulations. Visual evoked potentials were severely, bilaterally abnormal and computerized tomographic localization showed bilateral lesions also. The stages of recognition are analysed through this case of visual verbal disconnection and the importance of memory in perception is highlighted.
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ranking = 7.235200545307
keywords = perception
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23/44. Alexia without agraphia in a left-handed patient with prosopagnosia.

    A left-handed patient was studied who had the acute onset of alexia without agraphia, a left homonymous hemianopia, and prosopagnosia. Neurodiagnostic tests including computerized axial tomography and angiography disclosed bilateral lesions in the posterior cerebral hemispheres involving the splenium of the corpus callosum. Neuropsychologic examination indicated marked impairment of facial discrimination, deficient naming and memory of presented visual material, and mild visual agnosia with relative preservation of other cognitive functions. These findings are consistent with a double disconnection syndrome involving disconnection of the dominant angular gyrus and right inferotemporal cortex from their bilateral visual inputs.
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ranking = 3.9061524562833
keywords = discrimination
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24/44. Word-form dyslexia.

    In this study we have reported our investigation of two patients with an acquired dyslexia characterized by letter-by-letter reading, whole word reading being apparently impossible. It has been shown that this phenomenon of letter-by-letter reading cannot be accounted for by visual or perceptual factors nor by impairment of visual span of apprehension. The exceptionally slow speed of reading was documented and a clear relationship between word length and reading speed established. Performance on tasks considered to maximize whole word reading which at the same time prevent the possibility of letter-by-letter reading, namely, reading script and reading with tachistoscopic presentation, was impaired. The satisfactory performance of these two patients on tasks of picture interpretation suggests that the two components of the syndrome simultanagnosia, letter-by-letter reading and piecemeal perception of complex scenes, are dissociable. Three alternative explanations of letter-by-letter reading are considered and we conclude that in this type of acquired dyslexia there is damage to the system through which a visual word-form is attained.
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ranking = 1.2058667575512
keywords = perception
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25/44. dyslexia in a right-handed patient with a posterior lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere.

    A 44-yr-old man was tested 17 months after he had a benign tumour in the lateral ventricle removed via a transverse surgical incision through the posterior temporal-parietal region of his right hemisphere. As a result of the surgical incision he suffered a number of visuo-spatial deficits, and test results strongly suggested he had speech lateralized in the left hemisphere. His speech and writing were normal but he suffered from a form of dyslexia. Most of the components of his disorder have previously been documented only in patients with left-hemispheric lesions.
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keywords = speech
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26/44. Visual agnosia without alexia.

    A 41-year-old man presented with bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarcts. He had visual object agnosia and prosopagnosia with preservation of reading abilities. There was also defective visual memory, topographic orientation, and color perception, as well as simultanagnosia. From the clinical facts and CT findings, it was postulated that bilateral visual-limbic disconnection accounted for the patient's visual agnosia and related disturbances.
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ranking = 1.2058667575512
keywords = perception
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27/44. An analysis of writing in a case of deep dyslexia.

    In tests of her ability to produce written and spoken language, this deep dyslexic patient produced semantic, visual, and derivational errors, including functor substitutions, and exhibited part-of-speech and abstractness effects in oral reading, oral and written naming, and writing to dictation, but not in repetition of single words and copying from memory. This patient therefore provides confirmation of the hypothesis presented in Nolan and Caramazza (1982) that the defining symptoms of deep dyslexia will be observed in responses to any task which requires lexical mediation. The patient's written responses in all tasks but direct copying were characterized by spelling errors which included transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and additions of letters. A model of writing is proposed which explains these errors in terms of a disruption of a phoneme-grapheme conversion process which normally functions to prevent decay of information from a Graphemic Buffer.
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keywords = speech
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28/44. Alexia and left homonymous hemianopia in a non-right-hander.

    A non-right-handed patient developed alexia without agraphia from a right occipital lobe infarction. An intracarotid amobarbital test showed left hemispheric dominance for speech. The cause of alexia in this patient could not be explained simply by the accepted disconnection hypothesis, which proposes that speech, handedness, and reading functions reside in the same hemisphere. The findings in this patient suggest that his speech function is located on the left, whereas his functions for reading and writing are located in the right hemisphere.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = speech
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29/44. Progressive dysfluency associated with right hemisphere disease.

    A late onset progressive dysfluency following a right hemisphere stroke occurred in a 62-year-old male. Dysfluency was characterized by pronounced word and phrase reiterations, and sound and syllable reiterations to a lesser degree. Spontaneous speech was significantly more dysfluent than oral reading and repetition. Recitation and singing were minimally dysfluent. Reiterations were accompanied by reduced vocal loudness and increased rate of speech. Reiterations occurred in initial, medial, and final sentence position. Secondary symptoms such as facial grimacing were absent. In contrast to acquired cortical stuttering which is characterized by a preponderance of sound and syllable sentence initial repetitions, dysfluency was more closely characteristic of palilalia. The dysfluency occurred as a symptom of a diffuse nonspecific subcortical projection system defect related to massive infarction in the right middle cerebral artery distribution with associated atrophy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = speech
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30/44. aphasia in a prelingually deaf woman.

    A left parietal infarct in a prelingually deaf person resulted in an aphasia for both American sign language (ASL) and written and finger-spelled English. Originally the patient had a nearly global aphasia affecting all language systems. By five to seven weeks post-onset her symptoms resembled those of hearing aphasics with posterior lesions: fluent but paraphasic signing, anomia, impaired comprehension and repetition, alexia, and agraphia with elements of neologistic jargon. In addition, there was a pronounced sequential movement copying disorder, reduced short-term verbal memory and acalculia. In general, the patient's sign errors showed a consistent disruption in the structure of ASL signs which parallels the speech errors of oral aphasic patients. We conclude that most aphasic symptoms are not modality-dependent, but rather reflect a disruption of linguistic processes common to all human languages. This case confirms the importance of the left hemisphere in the processing of sign language. Furthermore, the results indicate that the left supramarginal and angular gyri are necessary substrates for the comprehension of visual/gestural languages.
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keywords = speech
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