Cases reported "Dyslexia, Acquired"

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1/269. Lexical access via letter naming in a profoundly alexic and anomic patient: a treatment study.

    We report the results of a letter naming treatment designed to facilitate letter-by-letter reading in an aphasic patient with no reading ability. Patient M.R.'s anomia for written letters reflected two loci of impairment within visual naming: impaired letter activation from print (a deficit commonly seen in pure alexic patients who read letter by letter) and impaired access to phonology via semantics (documented in a severe multimodality anomia). Remarkably, M.R. retained an excellent ability to pronounce orally spelled words, demonstrating that abstract letter identities could be activated normally via spoken letter names, and also that lexical phonological representations were intact when accessed via spoken letter names. M.R.'s training in oral naming of written letters resulted in significant improvement in her oral naming of trained letters. Importantly, as M.R.'s letter naming improved, she became able to employ letter-by-letter reading as a compensatory strategy for oral word reading. M.R.'s success in letter naming and letter-by-letter reading suggests that other patients with a similar pattern of spared and impaired cognitive abilities may benefit from a similar treatment. Moreover, this study highlights the value of testing the pronunciation of orally spelled words in localizing the source of prelexical reading impairment and in predicting the functional outcome of treatment for impaired letter activation in reading. ( info)

2/269. Treatment of a case of phonological alexia with agraphia using the Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program.

    Phonological alexia and agraphia are acquired disorders characterized by an impaired ability to convert graphemes to phonemes (alexia) or phonemes to graphemes (agraphia). These disorders result in phonological errors typified by adding, omitting, shifting, or repeating phonemes in words during reading or graphemes when spelling. In developmental dyslexia, similar phonological errors are believed to result from deficient phonological awareness, an oral language skill that manifests itself in the ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the individual sounds in words. The Auditory Discrimination in Depth (ADD) program has been reported to train phonological awareness in developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia. We used a multiple-probe design to evaluate the ADD program's effectiveness with a patient with a mild phonological alexia and mixed agraphia following a left hemisphere infarction. Large gains in phonological awareness, reading and spelling nonwords, and reading and spelling real words were demonstrated. A follow-up reassessment, 2 months posttreatment, found the patient had maintained treatment gains in phonological awareness and reading, and attained additional improvement in real word reading. ( info)

3/269. Acquired alexia: lessons from successful treatment.

    Two individuals with anomic aphasia and acquired alexia were each provided treatment for their reading impairment. Although reading of single words in isolation was fairly accurate, their text reading was slow and effortful, including functor substitutions and semantic errors. Prior to treatment, reading reaction times for single words showed grammatical class and word-length effects. Both patients responded positively to a treatment protocol that included two phases: (1) multiple oral rereading of text, and (2) reading phrase-formatted text that had increased spacing between phrasal clauses. Their reading rates for text improved while maintaining good comprehension. Following treatment, reading reaction times for single words showed the elimination of grammatical class and word-length effects, suggesting improved access to word forms, particularly functors. ( info)

4/269. rehabilitation of a case of pure alexia: exploiting residual abilities.

    We present a case study of a 43-year-old woman with chronic and stable pure alexia. Using a multiple baseline design we report the results of two different interventions to improve reading. First, a restitutive treatment approach using an implicit semantic access strategy was attempted. This approach was designed to exploit privileged access to lexical-semantic representations and met with little success. Treatment was then switched to a substitutive treatment strategy, which involved using the patient's finger to pretend to copy the letters in words and sentences. reading using this motor cross-cuing strategy was 100% accurate and doubled in speed after 4 weeks of intervention. We propose that this patient's inability to benefit from the implicit semantic access treatment approach may be in part related to her inability to suppress the segmental letter identification process of word recognition. ( info)

5/269. Sinistrad mirror writing and reading after brain concussion in a bi-systemic (oriento-occidental) polyglot.

    The problem of mirror writing and reading is discussed in the light of a clinical case, where this disturbance appeared after an apparently minor head injury. Mirror writing and reading in this polyglot individual affected only the sinistrad (Hebrew) writing and reading system, leaving the dextrad (Latin) system unimpaired. This disturbance appeared together with dyscalculia, left-right disorientation and slight temporal confusion, suggestive of parieto-occipital lobe pathology. The clinical picture also showed apparently "conversional" traits, such as are sometimes seen in incomplete parietal lobe syndromes. The relevant literature is reviewed and patho-physiological mechanisms of mirror reversal are discussed. ( info)

6/269. Can treatment for pure alexia improve letter-by-letter reading speed without sacrificing accuracy?

    An experimental treatment study designed to improve both the accuracy and the speed of reading was administered to a patient with pure alexia and impaired letter naming. The study focused on the use of letter-by-letter reading. A two-stage approach was employed. The first stage implemented a tactile-kinesthetic strategy to improve accuracy. The second stage concentrated on speed. At the end of the treatment, patient DL was reading both trained and untrained words more accurately and with considerably greater speed than prior to treatment. Accuracy and speed of reading at the sentence level improved as well. ( info)

7/269. Articulatory processes and phonologic dyslexia.

    BACKGROUND-OBJECTIVE: Grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (GPC) allows the pronunciation of nonword letter strings and of real words with which the literate reader has no previous experience. Although cross-modal association between visual (orthographic) and auditory (phonemic-input) representations may contribute to GPC, many cases of deep or phonologic alexia result from injury to anterior perisylvian regions. Thus, GPC may rely upon associations between orthographic and articulatory (phonemic-output) representations. METHOD-RESULTS-CONCLUSION: Detailed analysis of a patient with phonologic alexia suggests that defective knowledge of the position and motion of the articulatory apparatus might contribute to impaired transcoding from letters to sounds. ( info)

8/269. Visual paralexias in a Spanish-speaking patient with acquired dyslexia: a consequence of visual and semantic impairments?

    We report the case of a Spanish patient SC who misread 55 per cent of the single words shown to her. SC's reading accuracy was affected by word imageability and frequency. Nonword reading was very poor. The majority of SC's errors to real-word targets bore a close visual similarity to the items that elicited them, but there was no indication of an effect of serial position on the probability that a letter from a target word would be incorporated into the error made to that word. SC made some visual errors in object naming and also showed evidence of a general semantic impairment. We consider the similarity between SC and patient AB reported by Lambon Ralph and Ellis (1997), and suggest that the very high levels of visual errors shown by these two patients may reflect a combination of visual and semantic impairments. ( info)

9/269. Alexia for Braille following bilateral occipital stroke in an early blind woman.

    Recent functional imaging and neurophysiologic studies indicate that the occipital cortex may play a role in Braille reading in congenitally and early blind subjects. We report on a woman blind from birth who sustained bilateral occipital damage following an ischemic stroke. Prior to the stroke, the patient was a proficient Braille reader. Following the stroke, she was no longer able to read Braille yet her somatosensory perception appeared otherwise to be unchanged. This case supports the emerging evidence for the recruitment of striate and prestriate cortex for Braille reading in early blind subjects. ( info)

10/269. Spoken language correlates of reading impairments acquired in childhood.

    This study reports the reading difficulties of five children following unilateral left hemisphere stroke sustained either before or during the early stages of literacy acquisition. Although each of the children experienced a period of disturbed language processing in the initial stages postonset, at the time of testing none of the children were considered to be clinically aphasic. Yet, on a standardized test of oral reading each of the children achieved a reading age that lagged behind chronological age and marked reading impairments were disclosed in four of the five children. A set of standardized and nonstandardized tests, aimed at measuring aspects of cognitive and spoken language processing that are considered to be important for normal reading acquisition, was administered. Where nonstandardized tests were used, performance of each of the stroke children was compared to that of groups of normally developing control children, closely matched for chronological age. A range of residual deficits in cognitive and spoken language processing was disclosed among the five brain-damaged children that appeared to be associated with their reading impairments. Two children had expectedly poor reading due to a selective impairment in verbal IQ; a specific phonological reading disorder was revealed in two children, each of which had a residual impairment to phonological awareness; and delayed reading acquisition was observed in one child with a general language deficit. It is suggested that when a child suffers damage to the left hemisphere in the early stages of reading acquisition, difficulties with learning to read are likely to ensue and may arise as a consequence of an underlying cognitive or linguistic deficit. ( info)
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