Cases reported "Dyslexia"

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1/6. Developmental amnesia: a new pattern of dissociation with intact episodic memory.

    A case of developmental amnesia is reported for a child, CL, of normal intelligence, who has intact episodic memory but impaired semantic memory for both semantic knowledge of facts and semantic knowledge of words, including general world knowledge, knowledge of word meanings and superordinate knowledge of words. In contrast to the deficits in semantic memory, there are no impairments in episodic memory for verbal or visual material, assessed by recall or recognition. Lexical decision was also intact, indicating impairment in semantic knowledge of vocabulary rather than absence of lexical representations. The case forms a double dissociation to the cases of Vargha-Khadem et al. [science 277 (1997) 376; Episodic memory: new directions in research (2002) 153]; Gadian et al. [brain 123 (2000) 499] for whom semantic memory was intact but episodic memory was impaired. This double dissociation suggests that semantic memory and episodic memory have the capacity to develop separately and supports models of modularity within memory development and a functional architecture for the developmental disorders within which there is residual normality rather than pervasive abnormality. knowledge of arithmetical facts is also spared for CL, consistent with adult studies arguing for numeracy knowledge distinct from other semantics. reading was characterised by difficulty with irregular words and homophones but intact reading of nonwords. CL has surface dyslexia with poor lexico-semantic reading skills but good phonological reading skills. The case was identified following screening from a population of normal schoolchildren suggesting that developmental amnesias may be more pervasive than has been recognised previously.
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2/6. Longitudinal case-studies of developmental dyslexia in Norwegian.

    This study examined retrospectively the preschool cognitive and linguistic profiles and emergent literacy skills in four Norwegian dyslexic children. The aim was to identify prognostic indicators that were associated with the reading impairments observed in an earlier study of these children. In comparison to a control group of at-risk children who were normal readers at age 10, three of the four dyslexic children exhibited either stagnation or a decline in speech accuracy in the presence of a vocabulary growth spurt at age 2-3 years. Skills in phonological awareness seemed to vary inconsistently with both early speech development and emergent literacy across the four cases. Delayed development in emergent literacy turned out to be the most potent prognostic indicator of later reading disorders. The study was guided by lexical restructuring theories of dyslexia.
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3/6. A case study of developmental phonological dyslexia.

    H.M. is a 17-year-old girl of at least average intelligence and with an above-average oral vocabulary. She is impaired at non-word reading in comparison to word reading. She is incapable of reading any long nonsense words or long unusual regular words correctly. Many of her non-word reading responses are lexicalizations. She reads non-words homophonic with real words better than she reads non-words that are not homophonic with real words. Her reading age is 10 years 11 months. A large proportion of her reading errors are derivational or visual paralexias. She makes no semantic errors or errors of regularization and few neologistic responses. H.M. is not influenced by the dimensions of spelling-to-sound regularity and word length. There is no effect of word class on single-word reading although a function word deficit is present when continuous text is read aloud. H.M. is impaired at word reading when the stimulus items are distorted in a manner that reduces the potential for global perception. H.M.'s spelling errors are primarily phonological, though more complex errors are made than those characteristic of surface agraphics. All of these features are consistent with reported cases of acquired phonological dyslexia. H.M. may be confidently regarded as a developmental phonological dyslexic.
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4/6. A dissociation between developmental surface and phonological dyslexia in two undergraduate students.

    This study compares the nature of the reading deficit that was observed in two dyslexic undergraduate students who were severely impaired at reading and spelling compared with normal undergraduates. They both achieved the same (below average) score on the National adult reading Test and on the Schonell spelling test. One of them, however, was good at reading and spelling nonwords, had good phonological awareness skills, was better at reading regular than irregular words, and made phonologically accurate reading and spelling errors (i.e. was a surface dyslexic). The other had poor phonological awareness, produced relatively few phonologically accurate spelling errors, and was poor at reading and spelling nonwords (i.e. was a phonological dyslexic). It is particularly noteworthy that such a clear dissociation between surface and phonological forms of developmental dyslexia occurred in two subjects who were closely matched in terms of their overall reading and spelling ability, and also in terms of their memory span and vocabulary. It is argued that this study strengthens the evidence for the existence of qualitatively different types of developmental dyslexia. The findings are also consistent with the view that phonological awareness skills are more closely related to the operation of the phonological rather than the visual reading route.
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5/6. A developmental deficit in short-term phonological memory: implications for language and reading.

    QU, an eight-year-old boy, was identified from a large scale normative study on the basis of his greatly reduced digit span, combined with normal long-term memory and non-verbal intelligence. Further investigation indicated that his visual STM was normal, but that he was clearly impaired on two verbal STM tests, nonword repetition, and memory span for words. His span showed clear effects of phonological similarity and word-length, suggesting qualitatively normal functioning of the phonological loop component of working memory, despite a quantitative impairment in level of performance. This pattern resembles that found in an earlier study of children with a specific language disorder. We tested QU on measures of vocabulary, syntax, and reading, and found him to be substantially below the age norms on all three. The implications of these findings are discussed for the role of the phonological loop in language development.
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6/6. Word recognition in developmental dyslexia: a connectionist interpretation.

    We present a study of the accuracy, consistency, and speed of word naming in a dyslexic boy, JM, who has severe impairments in the ability to use sub-lexical, phonological reading strategies. For words that he can recognise, JM's naming latencies do not differ from those of control subjects matched for reading age, and he is generally consistent from one occasion to the next. He can also match printed homophones with their definitions--a skill that requires access to well-specified orthographic representations. The data are interpreted as evidence for the creation of efficient recognition devices for words within JM's sight vocabulary. However, he shows a continuing inability to use phonological decoding strategies to deal with words that he cannot recognize by sight. overall we argue our results pose problems for stage models of reading development, and that they may best be interpreted within a connectionist framework of the development of word recognition skills.
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