Cases reported "Dysostoses"

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1/3. Molecular genetic prenatal diagnosis for a case of autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis.

    Autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis type 1 (ARSCD1) is a member of the heterogeneous group of disorders termed the spondylocostal dysostoses that are characterized by multiple vertebral segmentation defects and rib anomalies. In these patients, the entire vertebral column is malformed and is replaced by multiple hemivertebrae giving rise to truncal shortening, abdominal protrusion and non-progressive spinal curvature. Genetic studies have shown that some cases of ARSCD are due to mutations in the somitogenesis gene, Delta-like 3 (DLL3), that encodes a ligand for the Notch signalling pathway-ARSCD type 1. To date, 17 different DLL3 gene mutations have been reported. A consanguineous family of Turkish origin with ARSCD type 1 due to a homozygous DLL3 mutation requested genetic prenatal diagnosis. Using dna from a chorionic villus sample, both linkage analysis of the DLL3/19q region and direct sequencing for the familial mutation demonstrated that the unborn fetus was an unaffected carrier. This is the first case of molecular genetic prenatal diagnosis in any form of SCD.
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2/3. Pseudodominant inheritance of spondylocostal dysostosis type 1 caused by two familial delta-like 3 mutations.

    Spondylocostal dysostoses (SCD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders of axial skeletal malformation characterized by multiple vertebral segmentation defects and rib anomalies. Sporadic cases with diverse phenotypes, sometimes including multiple organ abnormalities, are relatively common, and monogenic forms demonstrating autosomal recessive (AR) and, more rarely, autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance have been reported. We previously showed that mutations in delta-like 3 (DLL3), a somitogenesis gene that encodes a ligand for the notch signaling pathway, cause AR SCD with a consistent pattern of abnormal segmentation. We studied an SCD family previously reported to show AD inheritance, in which the phenotype is similar to that in AR cases. Direct DLL3 sequencing of individuals in two generations identified the affected father as homozygous for a novel frameshift mutation, 1440delG. His two affected children were compound heterozygotes for this mutation and a novel missense mutation, G504D, the first putative missense mutation reported in the transmembrane domain of DLL3. Their two unaffected siblings were heterozygotes for the 1440delG mutation. Pseudodominant inheritance has been confirmed, and the findings raise potential consequences for genetic counseling in relation to the SCD disorders.
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3/3. Thoracic three-dimensional spiral CT findings of an infant with spondylothoracic dysostosis.

    Spondylocostal dysostoses are a group of rare inherited disease with a heterogeneous disorder of vertebral segmentation defects and rib anomalies, which lead to respiratory problems predicting the clinical outcome. Spiral CT with three-dimensional (3D) imaging provides exact measurement of the bony rib cage. We report a case of an infant with spondylothoracic dysostosis, a phenotype of spondylocostal dysostoses, and 3D spiral CT findings of his rib cage since it may contribute to the surgical planning.
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