Cases reported "Dyspepsia"

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1/6. review article: managing the dyspeptic patient--an interactive discussion.

    dyspepsia, a common disorder, can present some difficult clinical dilemmas. physicians should explore some of the more challenging cases of dyspepsia in a setting that fosters interactive dialogue among colleagues, as was the case at the interactive discussion reported below. A panel of experts presented and discussed three case histories. The audience was able to choose from among several options for diagnosis or treatment and recorded their votes by means of an electronic handset. The first case concerned the relationship between continued non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and recurrent upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms without ulcer or helicobacter pylori infection. The second was a woman with complex upper GI symptoms including heartburn. The last featured a young man with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. The first case showed that a standard dose of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is the best treatment for patients with gastritis who continue to use NSAIDs. The second case revealed that 24-h pH monitoring can be used to establish a relationship between symptoms and reflux episodes. The third case demonstrated that it can be difficult to make a definitive diagnosis based on clinical symptoms, and that patients with endoscopy-negative reflux disease usually respond well to PPI therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gastritis
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2/6. Gastric gastrinoma and diffuse G cell hyperplasia associated with chronic atrophic gastritis. Endoscopic detection and removal.

    Chronic atrophic gastritis and a sessile polyp were diagnosed during gastroscopy of a patient with splenomegaly and portal hypertension. The polyp was removed endoscopically. Histologically, it proved to be an endocrine tumour, which was identified as gastrinoma by immunohistochemistry. Then, hypergastrinemia was found and gastrectomy was performed to ensure complete removal of the tumour. The surgical specimen showed G cell hyperplasia of the antro-pyloric mucosa and severe atrophic gastritis with scattered argyrophil micronodules in the corpus-fundus region. 3 years after this treatment the patient is well.
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ranking = 6
keywords = gastritis
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3/6. Pachydermoperiostosis, hypertrophic gastropathy, and peptic ulcer.

    Two brothers with pachydermoperiostosis, an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by digital clubbing, periosteal new bone formation, coarse facial features with thick, furrowed, and oily skin, presented in their twenties with severe complicated duodenal ulcer disease requiring multiple operations. Their father and one paternal uncle also had pachydermoperiostosis and a past history of ulcer dyspepsia. The mother, one sister, two maternal aunts, and one other paternal uncle were healthy. Both brothers had giant hypertrophic gastritis (Menetrier's disease). Their pentagastrin-stimulated acid output and fasting and meal-stimulated serum gastrin levels were normal, but their serum pepsinogen I and II levels were markedly elevated. The father had hypochlorhydria and a low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio, suggesting atrophic gastritis. This family study raises the possibility that pachydermoperiostosis, hypertrophic gastropathy, and peptic ulcer may be genetically related.
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ranking = 2
keywords = gastritis
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4/6. Collagenous gastritis associated with lymphocytic colitis.

    collagenous sprue and collagenous colitis are two well-recognized idiopathic enteritides whose defining histologic attribute is fibrous thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane. Analogous changes in gastric mucosa seem to be quite rare. The term "collagenous gastritis" was recently applied for the first time to an isolated case of refractory gastritis in which distinctive subepithelial gastric fibrosis was noted. We report an additional case of this entity in a 35-year-old woman with refractory dyspepsia. In contrast to the earlier case of collagenous gastritis, our patient also had lymphocytic colitis, a type of colitis associated with watery diarrhea. Collagenous gastritis appears to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity, the histologic changes of which should be sought in patients with unexplained dyspepsia. Increased awareness of this condition and its possible clinical correlates may provide clues to its etiology and pathogenesis.
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ranking = 8
keywords = gastritis
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5/6. dyspepsia as initial symptom of splanchnic vascular insufficiency.

    A patient is reported with an unusual presentation of splanchnic ischaemia, causing gastritis. Although mesenteric ischaemia is well described in the literature, there is little information on gastric ischaemia resulting in gastritis. There was a considerable delay in diagnosis and treatment, adding to a complicated course of events. After revascularization the patient made a complete recovery.
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ranking = 2
keywords = gastritis
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6/6. The histopathology of human gastric mucosa inhabited by helicobacter heilmannii-like (Gastrospirillum hominis) organisms, including the first culturable case.

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms in human gastric biopsies and the associated histology compared with that of helicobacter pylori-bearing gastric biopsies. Furthermore, the feasibility of culturing H. heilmannii was examined. A consecutive series of 727 gastric biopsies from 650 patients were prospectively scrutinized for H. heilmannii. Their distribution pattern was recorded as well as the affiliated morphology of the gastric mucosa. Additional biopsies from some of the patients were examined microbiologically. Four cases (0.6%)(95% confidence intervals: 0.01-1.2%) of the examined material harboured H. heilmannii. The bacterial burden was graded as sparse in three cases, moderate in one case. The distribution pattern was patchy; thus, in no case did all biopsies from one endoscopy comprise H. heilmannii. Adhesion to epithelial cells was infrequent. A mild gastritis, active in three cases, characterized all biopsies. Lymphoid aggregates occurred in biopsies from three patients. Micropapillary tufting of the epithelial layer and intestinal metaplasia were not apparent. culture studies proved successful in the one of the four cases assayed. In conclusion the morphology of H. heilmannii-bearing mucosa deviates from that of H. pylori-associated mucosa by the absence of epithelial damage in the former. This observation can in part be explained by the predominant location of H. heilmannii at a distance from the epithelium in contrast to the conspicuous H. pylori adhesion to epithelial cells, coupled with a usually low bacterial burden and patchy occurrence of H. heilmannii as opposed to the generally more heavy infestation with H. pylori.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gastritis
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