Cases reported "Dyspnea, Paroxysmal"

Filter by keywords:

Retrieving documents. Please wait...

1/8. Hyperlucent lung after radiation therapy.

    A 63-year-old woman was demonstrated to have a hyperlucent lung in a hemithorax irradiated 9 years previously for carcinoma of the breast. This is the second reported concurrence of these events. ( info)

2/8. Oropharyngeal chordoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Due to its rarity, chordoma may be difficult to differentiate from other neoplasms with a similiar myxoid background. We describe a case of chordoma involving the oropharynx inferiorly that was diagnosed by transoral fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology (FNAC) and confirmed by histologic studies. This appears to be 1 of the few reported applications of FNA in the diagnosis of chordoma of the oropharynx in the English-language literature. CASE: A 50-year-old male presented with nocturnal dyspnea and rare hemoptysis for 6 months. A hypodense mass was located in the left posterior side of the oropharynx. FNAC of the mass showed classic physaliferous cells with a bubbly appearance and myxoid fibrillary background. The aspirate was reported as "myxoid tumor suggestive of chordoma," as confirmed by histopathologic investigation of the excisional biopsy. CONCLUSION: The cytologic features of chordoma are quite characteristic, especially on May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG)-stained slides. The cytoplasmic vacuoles of the physaliferous cells and the mucoid matrix of the tumor become conspicuous on MGG staining. When Papanicolaou staining is used as the only staining procedure, the cytoplasmic vacuoles of the physaliferous cells and mucoid matrix of chordomas may be overlooked. The differential diagnosis of myxoid tumors is of utmost importance for therapy and prognosis. ( info)

3/8. Esophageal regurgitation as a cause of inspiratory distress after thyroplasty.

    OBJECTIVES: edema of the arytenoid and wound hematoma are principal causes of inspiratory distress after arytenoid adduction and type I thyroplasty. The purpose of the present study was demonstrate esophageal regurgitation one of the causes of inspiratory distress after thyroplastic surgeries. STUDY DESIGN: Two case reports. methods: We encountered 2 patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility who required emergent tracheostomy owing to sudden inspiratory distress 1 to 2 days after completion of arytenoid adduction combined with type I thyroplasty. RESULTS: Their dyspneic attacks occurred just after taking a meal. Both had a history of esophagectomy with reconstruction of the food passage using a gastric tube. They had a sufficiently wide glottis as indicated by laryngeal fiberscopy. Videofluorography showed a stricture at the junction between the duodenum and the gastric tube and barium pooling above the stricture. Regurgitation of barium was also seen. CONCLUSION: Based on these clinical courses and findings, laryngeal closure reflex triggered by esophageal regurgitation was considered to be the most possible cause of their dyspneic attacks. Phonosurgeons considering thyroplastic surgeries for postesophagectomy patients should be aware that esophageal regurgitation possibly causes laryngeal closure reflex resulting in inspiratory distress during the postoperative period. ( info)

4/8. Cardiac asthma presenting as status asthmaticus: deleterious effect of epinephrine therapy.

    epinephrine is a potent bronchodilator currently used to treat severe asthma, although there is no proven advantage of this drug over beta 2 adrenergic agonists. By contrast, as demonstrated here, the use of such a potent vasoconstrictor can worsen hemodynamic status when left ventricular dysfunction is associated with asthma or is the cause for dyspnea. We describe the case of a 60-year-old man with an history of chronic asthmatic bronchitis admitted for status asthmaticus. Bronchodilator therapy, including high dosages of intravenous epinephrine, failed to improve the patient and he was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Several hours later, a right heart catheterization revealed severe unexpected left heart dysfunction with a capillary wedge pressure of 45 mmHg and a cardiac index of 1.7 l/min/m2. epinephrine was gradually stopped which resulted in a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and an improvement of hemodynamic status. He was discharged on home mechanical ventilation. In this patient, ischemic left heart failure was revealed by a clinical picture mimicking status asthmaticus. epinephrine, given as bronchodilator therapy on an empiric basis precipitated the patient into cardiogenic shock. Therefore this drug should not be recommended in face of the possibility of cardiac asthma or associated cardiac dysfunction. ( info)

5/8. Normal airway responsiveness to methacholine in cardiac asthma.

    Cardiac asthma has been used as a synonym for episodes of cough, dyspnea, and wheezing caused by left ventricular dysfunction. The similarity of the terms bronchial asthma and cardiac asthma, and the observed symptoms of each disease implies a common pathophysiology. Bronchial asthma is characterized pathologically by airway narrowing, inflammation, edema, and obstruction by mucus. Bronchial asthma is defined as increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree, which is manifested clinically as reversible expiratory airflow obstruction. The classic symptoms of bronchial asthma are cough, dyspnea, and wheezing. Cardiac asthma produces the same symptoms, but the pathophysiology producing these symptoms is not well described. We describe two patients with cardiac asthma who failed to demonstrate airway hyperresponsiveness to nonspecific bronchoprovocation testing and we postulate that these patients' symptoms were produced exclusively by left ventricular failure. ( info)

6/8. rupture of a papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve in primary pulmonary hypertension.

    rupture of a papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve is a rare occurrence, and nontraumatic rupture is still rarer. We describe a 26-year-old male with primary pulmonary hypertension presenting with severe dyspnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea following spontaneous rupture of the septal papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy. ( info)

7/8. Pedicled pericardial patch repair of a carinal bronchogenic cyst.

    Bronchogenic cysts should be completely removed. Small communications with the tracheobronchial tree occur, but extensive involvement is rare. A case of bronchogenic cyst replacing the carina and the medial wall of the right and left main bronchi is presented. Resection and reconstruction was accomplished by using a pedicled pericardial patch to close the defect created by removal of the bronchogenic cyst. Follow-up at 2 years shows an excellent result. ( info)

8/8. Nebulized morphine for paroxysmal cough and dyspnea in a nursing home resident with metastatic cancer.

    nursing homes continue to be challenged with the task of caring for patients in various stages of disease. Historically, the death of a long-term care patient in this setting is not unusual; however, researchers and clinicians are focusing increasingly on the quality of life at the end of life, regardless of location. The long-term care facility is an ideal setting in which to begin to effectively address these issues, especially as individual patients in need present for care. Although the care of many of our geriatric patients meets the definition of palliative care, no where is the need greater, and more obvious, than in the patient presenting with terminal illness. Aggressive treatment of distressing symptomatology contributes to overall quality of life, and returns to the patient some of the freedom and autonomy usurped by the disease process. It is particularly rewarding for the interdisciplinary team to be successful in controlling symptoms in the patient with limited life expectancy, thus allowing the patient to complete unfinished tasks and enjoy quality time with family and friends. Often the "triumphs" in the nursing home are few and fleeting; abolishing pain, distress, and suffering is both personally and professionally satisfying for everyone involved. We presented a review of the available literature on a technique in palliative medicine which is still evolving. Additional, we presented its practical use in a frail, elderly nursing home resident admitted with end-stage metastatic breast carcinoma. The geriatric adage of "start low, and go slow" was effectively borne out in the management of this resident's most difficult symptoms, shortness of breath and paroxysmal cough leading to symptomatic atrial fibrillation. The key to the management of the frail elderly patient goes beyond " start low and go slow" to "aggressively titrate as needed but no further" in order to meet the needs of the individual patient and avoids unwanted side effects. ( info)

Leave a message about 'Dyspnea, Paroxysmal'

We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.