Cases reported "Dyspnea"

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1/144. Forced expiratory wheezes in a patient with dynamic expiratory narrowing of central airways and an oscillating pattern of the flow-volume curve.

    Forced expiratory wheezes (FEW) are common and the pathogenesis of this phenomenon might involve fluttering of the airways, but this theory has not been confirmed in patients. We report a case of a patient with FEW and a normal FEV1 that showed a bronchoscopically confirmed collapse of the trachea and main stem bronchi during forced expiration. Superimposed to the flow-volume curve was an oscillating pattern with a frequency that corresponded well with the wheeze generated during forced expiration. The oscillating pattern in the flow-volume curve and the collapse of the major airways supports the theory of wheezes generated by fluttering airways during forced expiration. Although FEW may be found also in healthy subjects, flow limitation is essential for the generation of FEW. The inclusion of a forced expiratory maneuver in the clinical examination might therefore be helpful in guiding the diagnosis towards airways obstruction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway, obstruction
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2/144. Pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis: presentation with dyspnea and air trapping.

    Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare lymphoid neoplasm that is typically of B-cell lineage and characterized by proliferation of malignant cells within small arterioles, capillaries, and venules. We report a patient with pulmonary IVL who presented clinically with progressive dyspnea, fever, and a dry cough. Pulmonary function tests revealed a marked decrease in diffusion capacity with airflow obstruction and severe air trapping. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest with inspiratory and expiratory images revealed mosaic attenuation consistent with air trapping. Transbronchial biopsies revealed the diagnosis of IVL with capillary expansion in the alveolar and peribronchiolar interstitial tissue. IVL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an interstitial lung disease, air trapping on pulmonary function tests, and mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Transbronchial biopsies may be the initial diagnostic procedure of choice.
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ranking = 0.064887097049954
keywords = obstruction
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3/144. Bronchial mucormycosis with progressive air trapping.

    A previously healthy 70-year-old woman developed fever, cough, and exertional dyspnea. Her symptoms progressed over a 2-month period despite treatment by her primary care physician with 2 courses of oral antibiotics and the addition of prednisone. Hypoxemia and the finding of hyperglycemia with mild ketoacidosis led to hospital admission. Serial chest radiographs demonstrated diffuse heterogeneous pulmonary opacities and progressive air trapping in the right lower lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a deep penetrating ulcer with exposed bronchial cartilage of the bronchus intermedius and dynamic airway obstruction with complete closure during expiration. biopsy of the ulcer revealed rhizopus arrhizus. Respiratory failure stabilized with the patient on conventional mechanical ventilation and receiving amphotericin b. Before surgery could be performed, pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and septic shock developed, and the patient died.
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ranking = 1.1628165989564
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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4/144. thyroid gland hematoma after blunt cervical trauma.

    Thyroid hematoma is a rare cause of airway obstruction in victims of blunt trauma. The case of a 34-year-old woman who developed orthopnea after a low-energy motor vehicle accident is described. Presenting greater than 24 hours after her accident, the patient noted dysphagia, tracheal deviation, and postural dyspnea. The diagnosis of thyroid gland hematoma was made with a combination of fiberoptic laryngoscopy, cervical computed tomography, and great vessel and carotid angiography. Invasive airway management was not required. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy and recovered without complications.
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ranking = 1.2797057118251
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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5/144. Inspiratory pressure threshold training for glottal airway limitation in laryngeal papilloma.

    A single-subject design was used to determine if inspiratory pressure threshold training increases inspiratory muscle strength and reduces the sensation of dyspnea during exercise and speech. The subject was a 23-year-old female with congenital juvenile papilloma which has been in remission for 10 years. A 4-week inspiratory muscle training program was implemented using an inspiratory pressure threshold trainer. The pressure threshold of the trainer was set by the experimenter. The pressure threshold setting of the trainer was based on a percentage of the subject's maximum inspiratory pressure measured prior to training. The average range of the pressure threshold was 40 to 70 cmH2O. In order for inspiratory air to flow, the subject generated inspiratory pressure, independent of airflow rate. Maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) was the dependent variable used as the index of inspiratory muscle strength. exercise dyspnea was a dependent variable rated by the subject during a progressive treadmill test. dyspnea associated with speech was rated following production of a comfortable and loud speech task. MIP increased by 57% following the training program with a 2-scale point reduction in the perception of dyspnea during exercise. dyspnea during loud speech decreased from moderate to mild. The changes in dyspnea, both during exercise and speech, are directly related to inspiratory muscle strengthening. The results suggest that inspiratory muscle training may improve respiratory related function in patients with restrictive upper airway disorders.
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ranking = 0.58444556434378
keywords = airway
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6/144. cricoid cartilage necrosis after arytenoidectomy in a previously irradiated larynx.

    Several open and endoscopic surgical techniques are available to provide an adequate airway for patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Transoral laser arytenoidectomy has repeatedly been reported to be a reliable and effective minimally invasive procedure for airway restoration. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of serious complications, other than poor vocal results, aspiration, and failed decannulation in individual patients, that have resulted from this intervention. We report a case in which arytenoidectomy led to severe complications and death. Prior irradiation is suspected to be a causative factor. To prevent such an outcome, we believe that operative settings should be chosen that avoid deep thermal injury of the laryngeal framework.
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ranking = 0.23377822573751
keywords = airway
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7/144. Vascular rings of the thoracic aorta in adults.

    Vascular rings have been well documented to cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in infants and children. Few reports document symptomatic vascular rings in adults, and most have emphasized dysphagia as the predominant symptom. We present the case of a 36-year-old white male with a double aortic arch and progressive dyspnea on exertion. This led us to review previous reports of vascular rings in adults. Criteria for review consisted of anatomically complete vascular rings of the aortic arch in adults age 18 years or older. We identified 25 prior cases for review and included our recent patient. The most common vascular ring anomalies in our review of adults is double aortic arch (n = 12; 46%) followed by right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and ligamentum arteriosum (n = 8; 30%). Of 24 patients (66%), 16 were symptomatic. Reported symptoms involving the respiratory tract (n = 10 of 24; 42%) included dyspnea on exertion (n = 5), bronchitis (n = 2), recurrent pneumonia, stridor, and unspecified respiratory ailment (n = 1 each). Dysphagia was less common, occurring in eight patients (33%). Previously proposed mechanisms for respiratory tract symptoms include tracheomalacia, static or dynamic compression of the airways, intravascular volume infusion, and aspiration. We also propose exercise-induced dilatation of the aortic arch and age-dependent changes in thoracic compliance as potential mechanisms of dyspnea.
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ranking = 0.11688911286876
keywords = airway
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8/144. Xanthoma disseminatum with respiratory tract involvement and fatal outcome.

    Xanthoma disseminatum (XD) is a rare mucocutaneous xanthomatosis classified as a benign form of non-Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. The case history is presented of a 61 year old woman with XD who developed dyspnoea and spirometric features of airflow obstruction. bronchoscopy and computed tomography confirmed involvement of the large and medium sized bronchi and she subsequently died from acute respiratory failure. The post-mortem findings and the importance of respiratory tract disease in this unusual condition are discussed.
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ranking = 0.064887097049954
keywords = obstruction
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9/144. An unusual cause of tracheal stenosis.

    PURPOSE: To report a large chronic tracheal foreign body, causing tracheal stenosis in an 11-yr-old girl. CLINICAL FEATURES: The history was suggestive of obstructive airways disease with secondary bronchiectasis. Physical findings were crepitations and rhonchi all over the chest. blood gases were normal. Chest X-ray showed bronchiectasis and a ventilation perfusion scan identified a tracheo-esophageal fistula. During anesthesia to confirm this, intubation and ventilation were difficult because of tracheal stenosis. The hypoventilation resulted in severe hypercarbia and acidosis. A subsequent CT scan showed a stenosis of 2 mm diameter and 1 cm length in the middle third of trachea, bronchiectasis, and an air filled pocket between the trachea and esophagus. PFT showed a severe obstruction. Antitubercular treatment which was started on the presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous stenosis and tracheoesophageal fistula caused a delay with deterioration of patient from intermittent dyspnea to orthopnea with severe hypecarbia and acidosis. The anesthetic management of the tracheal reconstruction was difficult due to her moribund condition even after medical treatment, the short length of the trachea above the obstruction, its severity and lack of resources for alternative techniques. A large foreign body was found lying obliquely in the trachea dividing it into an anterior narrow airway mimicking a stenosed trachea, and a wider posterior blind passage. CONCLUSION: The anesthetic consequences were peculiar to the unexpected etiology of the stenosis and poor general condition of the patient. Minor details like the tracheal tube bevel and ventilatory pattern became vitally important.
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ranking = 0.36355241983742
keywords = airway, obstruction
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10/144. Foreign body airway in neonates.

    Two cases of foreign body in neonates less than one month of age are reported. Although foreign bodies in neonates are unknown but the possibility should not be overlooked even in neonates especially with sudden onset of respiratory distress, cough or hoarseness in absence of fever.
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ranking = 0.46755645147502
keywords = airway
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