Cases reported "Dyspnea"

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11/144. Crohn's disease: a rare cause of upper airway obstruction.

    Although uncommon, lesions of Crohn's disease can involve the hypopharynx and lower respiratory tract. We describe a patient with partial airway obstruction secondary to Crohn's disease of the hypopharynx and larynx. This entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting to the Emergency Department with upper airway obstruction.
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keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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12/144. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: treatment with the antileprosy drug clofazimine.

    sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease that occasionally affects the larynx. When the larynx is affected, the symptoms are frequently mild, but severe airway obstruction can occur. Although systemic corticosteroids are helpful, patients may become refractory to further drug administration. The current methods of treatment are here summarized, and the patient literature is reviewed. We also report a case of a young patient suffering from laryngeal sarcoidosis successfully treated by the antileprosy agent clofazimine and propose it as an alternative treatment of laryngeal sarcoidosis in patients refractory to corticosteroids.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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13/144. A rare cause of dyspnea and fibrocystic pulmonary disease.

    tracheobronchomegaly (TBM) is a disorder of the major airways characterized by an enlargement of the trachea and main stem bronchi. It is thought to result from a congenital connective tissue defect that results in the trachea and main bronchi becoming flaccid. Although TBM is considered rare, it may be more common than is generally recognized, and may be a seldom-diagnosed cause of chronic lung disease.
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ranking = 0.016753732986736
keywords = airway
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14/144. meige syndrome secondary to basal ganglia injury: a potential cause of acute respiratory distress.

    BACKGROUND: meige syndrome is a movement disorder that includes blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonias. Its etiology may be idiopathic (primary) or it may arise secondary to focal brain injury. Acute respiratory distress as a feature of such dystonias occurs infrequently. A review of the literature on meige syndrome and the relationship between dystonias and respiratory compromise is presented. methods: A 60-year-old woman suffered a cerebral anoxic event secondary to manual strangulation. She developed progressive blepharospasm combined with oromandibular and cervical dystonias. neuroimaging demonstrated bilateral damage localized to the globus pallidus. Years later, she presented to the emergency department in intermittent respiratory distress associated with facial and cervical muscle spasms. RESULTS: Increasing frequency and severity of the disorder was noted over years. The acute onset of respiratory involvement required intubation and eventual tracheotomy. A partial therapeutic benefit of tetrabenazine was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: This case highlights two interesting aspects of Meige's syndrome: (1) Focal bilateral basal ganglia lesions appear to be responsible for this patient's movement disorder which is consistent with relative overactivity of the direct pathway from striatum to globus pallidus internal and substantia nigra pars reticularis; (2) Respiratory involvement in a primarily craniofacial dystonia to the point of acute airway compromise.
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ranking = 0.016753732986736
keywords = airway
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15/144. Upper airway obstruction due to rhinoscleroma: case report.

    rhinoscleroma is a very rare cause of upper airway obstruction with only isolated reports in the literature of rhinoscleroma with isolated tracheal obstruction. The course is usually chronic with the presentation most often being non-specific. We report a 54-year-old woman with progressive shortness of breath and wheezing over 7 years' duration. She was diagnosed and treated as bronchial asthma without improvement in her symptoms. At the time of referral to our institution, her flow-volume loop revealed fixed upper airway obstruction. Her chest radiography and other laboratory tests were normal. bronchoscopy revealed a 70-80% irregular concentric stenosis of the trachea beginning immediately below the vocal cords and extending 4 cm distally. biopsy showed characteristic Mikulicz histiocytes containing numerous gram-negative intracellular coccobacilli consistent with a diagnosis of rhinoscleroma. The patient was treated with laser resection of the stenosis followed by a course of ciprofloxcin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. She has remained asymptomatic over a year follow-up period and repeated biopsies have shown no evidence of recurrence.
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ranking = 1.0093002767459
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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16/144. Cardiac amyloidosis presenting with elevations of cardiac troponin i and angina pectoris.

    We present the case of a 43-year-old male who was initially evaluated for angina pectoris and dyspnea. His CK, CK-MB, and cTnI were all elevated following a blood transfusion and he underwent coronary arteriography, which demonstrated no luminal obstructions. After several months, he was transferred to Mayo Clinic where diagnoses of fulminant cardiac amyloidosis and systemic multiple myeloma were established. The cTnI remained elevated despite normalization of the CK and CK-MB. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient died. Postmortem analysis demonstrated amyloid cardiac deposition including involvement of the coronary microvasculature. Electron microscopy revealed myocyte compression injury from amyloid infiltration. We believe this is the first report of elevated troponin i in a patient with cardiac amyloidosis. The electron microscopy in our case confirms cardiac damage as the mechanism for cTnI elevation. This observation strengthens our knowledge about the specificity of cTnI for the detection of cardiac injury.
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ranking = 0.0093002767458757
keywords = obstruction
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17/144. Temporary stenting for malignant tracheal stenosis due to esophageal cancer: a case report.

    We present a case of a 56-year-old male with esophageal cancer who underwent successful temporary tracheal stenting followed by a surgical procedure. The trachea was obstructed owing to endotracheal metastasis and the patient had severe dyspnea. A silicone Y-stent was initially inserted into the tracheal stenosis to secure the airway, and then tumor-specific chemo-radiotherapy was applied. The tumor was reduced, the stent was removed and a pathological study indicated that the tracheal metastasis had disappeared. The patient then underwent esophagectomy and tumor-specific chemo-radiotherapy was continued after the surgery. The patient has remained alive and free of esophageal cancer for 18 months after the airway stent emplacement. These findings suggested that the silicone stent was suitable as a temporary measure and that temporary stenting combined with tumor-specific therapy was effective as part of the aggressive therapeutic strategy with which to treat the malignant airway stenosis due to esophageal cancer.
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ranking = 0.050261198960207
keywords = airway
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18/144. Idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    A 41-year-old man complained of subacute onset of dyspnea and pain in the neck and chest. He was diagnosed with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, based on clinical inspection of the breathing pattern and transdiaphragmatic pressure recording, and was trained to use a portable bi-level positive airway pressure apparatus (BiPAP). Needle electromyography showed profuse fibrillation potentials and positive waves in the diaphragm, more abundant on the right than left side, and no response to phrenic nerve stimulation. Other muscles were not involved. Follow-up examinations, performed at 9 and 12 months after onset of paralysis, demonstrated a slow but progressive improvement of the patient's respiratory function, together with the appearance of reinnervation potentials in the diaphragm, and polyphasic, long-latency responses to phrenic nerve stimulation. The subacute onset of the paralysis associated with local pain, and its subsequent recovery, suggest bilateral proximal lesions in the phrenic nerves. In the absence of traumatic or metabolic causes, these findings suggest that the phrenic nerve can be a target in idiopathic neuritis.
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ranking = 0.016753732986736
keywords = airway
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19/144. Intratracheal thyroid.

    Ectopic thyroid tissue within the trachea (intratracheal or endotracheal tissue) is a rare cause of upper airway obstruction. The symptoms may be classical or, as in most cases in which the voice is not affected, the first sign may be a wheeze. This may result in the symptoms being mistaken for asthma. The presence of a submucosal upper tracheal mass is quite unusual. If one is familiar with the fact that thyroid tissue may occur in this location, then this diagnosis should be considered in patients with such symptoms, and the appropriate diagnostic studies and surgical management should be instituted. The present case report entailed a 56-year-old female who was admitted to the hospital after having been treated for a year in an outlying area. She had increasing shortness of breath and wheezing and had been treated several times for asthma. Indirect laryngoscopy revealed an upper tracheal submucosal mass which was confirmed by direct laryngoscopy and by tomography. Biopsies were taken confirming nodular ectopic thyroid tissue. The patient was operated on through a cervical incision and a tracheal flap was elevated in order to carry out a submucosal dissection of this mass. The patient has done well for more than a year following surgery, and histologically this lesion was benign in the thyroid tissue.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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20/144. Breathless.

    This case presented the scenario of a patient who had severe bronchospasm from an unknown etiology. Further, she had difficulty speaking and denied any past medical history, which made a diagnosis more difficult. Prehospital providers were challenged with determining the differential diagnosis for bronchospasm and hypoxemia. Was the patient experiencing an anaphylactic reaction, acute asthmatic attack or something else? The key here, once again, is conducting a thorough assessment and patient history. Remember, all that wheezes is not asthma; therefore, providers in this case had to determine if the patient was suffering something such as anaphylaxis, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia or even congestive heart failure (CHF). Typically, anaphylaxis and asthma affect ventilation, not oxygenation, so until the late stages of anaphylaxis or asthma, the patient will have difficulty moving air, but will be oxygenating OK. We understand that many respiratory conditions can cause wheezing, but CHF? Yes: As left ventricular function diminishes and leads to increased pulmonary pressure, serum begins to leak out of the pulmonary vessels and into the interstitial space. As the interstitial pressure increases, it causes narrowing of the bronchioles, and air traveling through the narrowed bronchioles causes the wheezing sound. Fluid may also be leaking out of the pulmonary capillaries and occupying space in the alveolar sacs. When the interstitial pressure is high and the bronchioles continue to narrow, providers may initially hear only the wheezing and not the crackles from the smaller airways. In these conditions, oxygen is not exchanged adequately into the blood, and the patient becomes hypoxemic. Good assessment and patient history will guide the EMS provider to the cause of bronchospasm. For example, does the patient have a history of asthma? If yes, asthma is likely to be the cause. Does the patient have any rash, hives or swelling? If yes, anaphylaxis is likely the cause. Is the patient elderly, and does he/she show pedal edema, JVD, hypoxemia and/or distended neck veins? If yes, CHF may be the cause. [table: see text] There are questions regarding the use of bronchodilators in patients suffering CHF. If a CHF patient is wheezing (bronchospasm), then a beta-2 selective breathing treatment may be appropriate, along with nitrates and diuretics. Oxygenation is the critical problem in CHF, and hypoxemia will continue to worsen cardiac function. Remember, both bronchoconstriction and alveolar sacs filling with fluid will impair oxygenation of the RBCs and ultimately the vital organs. Focused prehospital management of CHF is aggressive in restoring oxygenation. For example, many agencies are now using oxygen, nitrates, ACE inhibitors and CPAP. By better understanding the pathophysiology of respiratory emergencies and their differential diagnosis, we will improve patient outcomes.
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ranking = 0.016753732986736
keywords = airway
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