Cases reported "Dyspnea"

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1/40. Restlessness of respiration as a manifestation of akathisia: five case reports of respiratory akathisia.

    BACKGROUND: Akathisia is a feeling of subjective or inner restlessness, which causes excessive, semipurposeful movements, commonly in the legs. However, restlessness in respiration, which presents as dyspnea but is best characterized as the sensation of being unable to breathe in a relaxed manner, has never been reported. case reports: Five cases are reported in which dyspnea as a sign of akathisia followed the administration of antipsychotic medications. The clinical features of dyspnea were examined, and all patients manifested both subjective and objective restlessness. The dyspnea was characterized subjectively by the patients' inner feeling of restlessness in respiration, which was perceived as an inability to breathe in a leisurely, relaxed manner, and objectively as restless movements of respiration such as gasping or sighing. The dyspnea was momentarily suppressed when a patient took a quick, full breath to relieve the perceived restlessness and was exacerbated when the patient kept the respiration still. Response to medications commonly used in the treatment of akathisia was also examined in an open, uncontrolled therapeutic trial for each patient. The administration of such medications completely alleviated the respiratory restlessness. CONCLUSION: Restlessness in respiration, which clinically presents as dyspnea, may be a manifestation of akathisia. This type of akathisia could be referred to as respiratory akathisia.
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2/40. Aspiration of an avulsed primary incisor. A case report.

    A 7-year-old girl had injured her maxillary primary incisors in a playground. One of the already-mobile incisors had been avulsed. The child who had a cough and breathing difficulties during sleep was diagnosed as suffering from upper respiratory infection and was treated with antibiotics. A few days later because her body temperature was elevated a chest radiograph was taken. The radiograph revealed an aspirated tooth in her right bronchus with atelectasis of the lower lobe. The tooth was removed by bronchoscopy. dentists should suspect any tooth that has been avulsed and not found as possibly aspirated.
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3/40. Orolaryngeal sarcoidosis presenting as obstructive sleep apnoea.

    A 53-year-old man was evaluated for snoring, dysphagia for solid foods and difficulty of breathing and a polysomnographic recording was consistent with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). A flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB) showed the presence of a nodular lesion of the posterior ventral surface of the tongue strictly connected to the left lateral border of the epiglottis. The biopsy specimen taken from the lesion was consistent with sarcoidosis. No involvement of pulmonary parenchyma, lymph nodes or other organs was recognized. After two months of steroid treatment, symptoms disappeared and resolution of the nodular lesion at the FFB and normalization of the polysomnographic recording were observed. This is the first report of orolaryngeal sarcoidosis associated with OSAS as the only clinical presentation of the disease.
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4/40. Dyspnoea exaggerated in the supine position and during exertion--diagnostic challenge.

    The case of dyspnoea, exaggerated when in the supine position and during exertion, as a result of severe weakness of the diaphragm is reported. The aim of the study was to present a rare case of idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paresis (BDP) and to describe all the diagnostic procedures necessary to perform differential diagnostics. In order to establish the final diagnosis, chest radiography, haemodynamic evaluation of the circulatory system, ultrasonography, ultrasonocardiography, measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressures, scintiscanning of the lungs, spirometry, analysis of arterial blood gases, computed tomography of the thorax and external stimulation of the phrenic nerve were performed. The measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressure was crucial to establish and confirm the diagnosis of BDP, as only a small difference in gastric and oesophageal pressures during tidal breathing and inspiratory efforts was recorded. As no cause of diaphragmatic paresis was found, the case was classified as idiopathic. The final diagnosis of non-trauma related bilateral diaphragmatic weakness was generally delayed. In the case of the described patient, dyspnoea, the main symptom he was suffering from, was supposed to result from his congenital heart defect. We recommend that the suspicion of idiopathic diaphragmatic paresis should always be raised in patients suffering from respiratory failure of unknown origin. It is, however, necessary to perform extensive diagnostics to exclude the other causes of phrenic-diaphragmatic impairment. It's also necessary to consider all infections, injuries and surgical procedures within the thorax as possible causes of diaphragmatic paresis.
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5/40. Symptomatic palatal myoclonus: an unusual cause of respiratory difficulty.

    A 67-year-old man presented with dysphagia and difficulty breathing. physical examination revealed palatal myoclonus. In this patient, the respiratory difficulty was caused by the fragmentation of breathing. Electromyographic examination of the cricothyroid muscle demonstrated rhythmic myoclonic jerks. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yielded a pontine midline and right sided tegmental infarct. The patient responded to sodium valproate.
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6/40. An intrapericardial teratoma with endocrine function.

    Intrapericardial teratoma was diagnosed in a nine-year-old male infant with a three-month history of labored breathing and cough. The tumor was completely resected and found to be a mature teratoma, containing pancreatic tissue and producing insulin. A few glucagon and somatostatin containing cells were also present in the periphery of the islets. Postoperative course was uneventful. This is to our knowledge, the first report of an intrapericardial teratoma with such endocrine activity.
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keywords = breathing
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7/40. Successful treatment of endogenous lipoid pneumonia due to Niemann-Pick Type B disease with whole-lung lavage.

    In Type B Niemann-Pick disease, progressive pulmonary infiltration is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, although the disease is usually diagnosed before adulthood in other organ systems. To date, no successful treatment of pulmonary involvement by Niemann-Pick disease has been documented. We describe the case of a patient with Niemann-Pick Type B disease who presented with extensive endogenous lipoid pneumonia and life-threatening hypoxia following bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease. A surgical lung biopsy at the time of grafting revealed characteristic histology and ultrastructural features of Niemann-Pick disease, with confirmatory findings in biochemical studies. Because of the severity of the patient's symptoms, bilateral whole-lung lavage was undertaken, leading to symptomatic improvement, lessening of parenchymal opacification on high-resolution computed tomographic scanning, and a marked improvement in resting arterial oxygen tension while breathing air to 10.3 kPa from 8.4 kPa. Whole-lung lavage may be a potentially useful modality of treatment for patients with pulmonary involvement by Niemann-Pick Type B disease.
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keywords = breathing
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8/40. Idiopathic bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    A 41-year-old man complained of subacute onset of dyspnea and pain in the neck and chest. He was diagnosed with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, based on clinical inspection of the breathing pattern and transdiaphragmatic pressure recording, and was trained to use a portable bi-level positive airway pressure apparatus (BiPAP). Needle electromyography showed profuse fibrillation potentials and positive waves in the diaphragm, more abundant on the right than left side, and no response to phrenic nerve stimulation. Other muscles were not involved. Follow-up examinations, performed at 9 and 12 months after onset of paralysis, demonstrated a slow but progressive improvement of the patient's respiratory function, together with the appearance of reinnervation potentials in the diaphragm, and polyphasic, long-latency responses to phrenic nerve stimulation. The subacute onset of the paralysis associated with local pain, and its subsequent recovery, suggest bilateral proximal lesions in the phrenic nerves. In the absence of traumatic or metabolic causes, these findings suggest that the phrenic nerve can be a target in idiopathic neuritis.
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keywords = breathing
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9/40. Breathless.

    This case presented the scenario of a patient who had severe bronchospasm from an unknown etiology. Further, she had difficulty speaking and denied any past medical history, which made a diagnosis more difficult. Prehospital providers were challenged with determining the differential diagnosis for bronchospasm and hypoxemia. Was the patient experiencing an anaphylactic reaction, acute asthmatic attack or something else? The key here, once again, is conducting a thorough assessment and patient history. Remember, all that wheezes is not asthma; therefore, providers in this case had to determine if the patient was suffering something such as anaphylaxis, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia or even congestive heart failure (CHF). Typically, anaphylaxis and asthma affect ventilation, not oxygenation, so until the late stages of anaphylaxis or asthma, the patient will have difficulty moving air, but will be oxygenating OK. We understand that many respiratory conditions can cause wheezing, but CHF? Yes: As left ventricular function diminishes and leads to increased pulmonary pressure, serum begins to leak out of the pulmonary vessels and into the interstitial space. As the interstitial pressure increases, it causes narrowing of the bronchioles, and air traveling through the narrowed bronchioles causes the wheezing sound. Fluid may also be leaking out of the pulmonary capillaries and occupying space in the alveolar sacs. When the interstitial pressure is high and the bronchioles continue to narrow, providers may initially hear only the wheezing and not the crackles from the smaller airways. In these conditions, oxygen is not exchanged adequately into the blood, and the patient becomes hypoxemic. Good assessment and patient history will guide the EMS provider to the cause of bronchospasm. For example, does the patient have a history of asthma? If yes, asthma is likely to be the cause. Does the patient have any rash, hives or swelling? If yes, anaphylaxis is likely the cause. Is the patient elderly, and does he/she show pedal edema, JVD, hypoxemia and/or distended neck veins? If yes, CHF may be the cause. [table: see text] There are questions regarding the use of bronchodilators in patients suffering CHF. If a CHF patient is wheezing (bronchospasm), then a beta-2 selective breathing treatment may be appropriate, along with nitrates and diuretics. Oxygenation is the critical problem in CHF, and hypoxemia will continue to worsen cardiac function. Remember, both bronchoconstriction and alveolar sacs filling with fluid will impair oxygenation of the RBCs and ultimately the vital organs. Focused prehospital management of CHF is aggressive in restoring oxygenation. For example, many agencies are now using oxygen, nitrates, ACE inhibitors and CPAP. By better understanding the pathophysiology of respiratory emergencies and their differential diagnosis, we will improve patient outcomes.
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keywords = breathing
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10/40. Nocturnal panic attacks.

    The panic-respiration connection has been presented with increasing evidences in the literature. We report three panic disorder patients with nocturnal panic attacks with prominent respiratory symptoms, the overlapping of the symptoms with the sleep apnea syndrome and a change of the diurnal panic attacks, from spontaneous to situational pattern. The implication of these findings and awareness to the distinct core of the nocturnal panic attacks symptoms may help to differentiate them from sleep disorders and the search for specific treatment.
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