Cases reported "Dyspnea"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/63. Forced expiratory wheezes in a patient with dynamic expiratory narrowing of central airways and an oscillating pattern of the flow-volume curve.

    Forced expiratory wheezes (FEW) are common and the pathogenesis of this phenomenon might involve fluttering of the airways, but this theory has not been confirmed in patients. We report a case of a patient with FEW and a normal FEV1 that showed a bronchoscopically confirmed collapse of the trachea and main stem bronchi during forced expiration. Superimposed to the flow-volume curve was an oscillating pattern with a frequency that corresponded well with the wheeze generated during forced expiration. The oscillating pattern in the flow-volume curve and the collapse of the major airways supports the theory of wheezes generated by fluttering airways during forced expiration. Although FEW may be found also in healthy subjects, flow limitation is essential for the generation of FEW. The inclusion of a forced expiratory maneuver in the clinical examination might therefore be helpful in guiding the diagnosis towards airways obstruction.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = volume
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/63. Pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis: presentation with dyspnea and air trapping.

    Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare lymphoid neoplasm that is typically of B-cell lineage and characterized by proliferation of malignant cells within small arterioles, capillaries, and venules. We report a patient with pulmonary IVL who presented clinically with progressive dyspnea, fever, and a dry cough. Pulmonary function tests revealed a marked decrease in diffusion capacity with airflow obstruction and severe air trapping. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest with inspiratory and expiratory images revealed mosaic attenuation consistent with air trapping. Transbronchial biopsies revealed the diagnosis of IVL with capillary expansion in the alveolar and peribronchiolar interstitial tissue. IVL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an interstitial lung disease, air trapping on pulmonary function tests, and mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Transbronchial biopsies may be the initial diagnostic procedure of choice.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 20.80584924546
keywords = capacity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/63. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A study of 69 patients. Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Maladies "Orphelines" Pulmonaires (GERM"O"P).

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by peribronchial, perivascular, and perilymphatic proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells leading to cystic lesions. The hypothesis of hormonal dependence and the effectiveness of hormonal therapy have not yet been demonstrated conclusively, and the prevalence of extrathoracic manifestations and the survival of patients with LAM are somewhat contradictory. A multicentric retrospective study was conducted in an attempt to describe better the initial features, the diagnostic procedures, the associated lesions, and, above all, the management and course of LAM in a large homogeneous series of 69 stringently selected patients, with a majority of cases diagnosed since 1990. The aim of the study, based on a review of the literature, also was to provide a comprehensive view of this uncommon disease. The clinical features were in keeping with previous studies, but we found that exertional dyspnea and pneumothorax were the most common features, and chylous involvement was less frequent. LAM was diagnosed after menopause in about 10% of cases. The onset of LAM occurred during pregnancy in 20% of cases, and a clear exacerbation of LAM was observed in 14% of cases during pregnancy. Pulmonary LAM was diagnosed on lung histopathology in 83% of cases, but renal angiomyolipoma, observed in 32% of our patients, may be a useful diagnostic criterion when associated with typical multiple cysts on chest CT scan or with chylous effusion. Chest CT scan was more informative than chest X-ray (normal in 9% of cases), and may be indicated in spontaneous pneumothorax or renal angiomyolipoma in women of childbearing age. About 40% of the patients had a normal initial spirometry, while an obstructive ventilatory defect (44%), a restrictive ventilatory defect (23%), was observed in other patients. Initial diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was frequently decreased (82%). Hormonal therapy was administered in 57 patients, but a clear > or = 15% improvement of FEV1 was observed in only 4 evaluable patients, treated with tamoxifen and progestogens (n = 2), progestogen (n = 1), and oophorectomy (n = 1). Probably 1 of the most urgent needs for clinical research in LAM is to test the currently available hormonal treatments in the context of international multicenter prospective controlled studies. pleurodesis was performed in 40 patients. lung transplantation was performed in 13 patients, 7.8 /- 5.2 years after onset of LAM, in whom the mean FEV1 was 0.57 /- 0.15 L. After a follow-up of 2.3 /- 2.2 years, 9 patients were alive. Mean follow-up from onset of disease to either death or closing date was 8.2 /- 6.3 years. overall survival was better than usually reported in LAM, and Kaplan-Meier plot showed survival probabilities of 91% after 5 years, 79% after 10 years, and 71% after 15 years of disease duration.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 20.80584924546
keywords = capacity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/63. Vascular rings of the thoracic aorta in adults.

    Vascular rings have been well documented to cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in infants and children. Few reports document symptomatic vascular rings in adults, and most have emphasized dysphagia as the predominant symptom. We present the case of a 36-year-old white male with a double aortic arch and progressive dyspnea on exertion. This led us to review previous reports of vascular rings in adults. Criteria for review consisted of anatomically complete vascular rings of the aortic arch in adults age 18 years or older. We identified 25 prior cases for review and included our recent patient. The most common vascular ring anomalies in our review of adults is double aortic arch (n = 12; 46%) followed by right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and ligamentum arteriosum (n = 8; 30%). Of 24 patients (66%), 16 were symptomatic. Reported symptoms involving the respiratory tract (n = 10 of 24; 42%) included dyspnea on exertion (n = 5), bronchitis (n = 2), recurrent pneumonia, stridor, and unspecified respiratory ailment (n = 1 each). Dysphagia was less common, occurring in eight patients (33%). Previously proposed mechanisms for respiratory tract symptoms include tracheomalacia, static or dynamic compression of the airways, intravascular volume infusion, and aspiration. We also propose exercise-induced dilatation of the aortic arch and age-dependent changes in thoracic compliance as potential mechanisms of dyspnea.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = volume
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/63. The invaluable pressure-volume curve.

    We present a case in which the pressure-volume (P-V) curve proved invaluable in the diagnostic workup of a patient. The patient was a 43-year-old man who presented with progressive dyspnea on exertion, restrictive spirometry, exercise desaturation, and an unremarkable CT scan. Because of the unexpected finding of an unremarkable CT scan, we wanted more data assuring the presence of an indication for lung biopsy. Detailed pulmonary function tests, including a P-V curve, were administered. The P-V curve was abnormal, thus prompting a biopsy, which revealed hypersensitivity pneumonitis. In this report, we discuss the use of P-V curves and the clinical presentation of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = volume
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/63. Active management of a patient with endstage pulmonary emphysema using lung volume reduction surgery and intensive rehabilitation.

    INTRODUCTION: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation are newer options available in the treatment of advanced emphysema. We describe the progress of our first local patient to have undergone these 2 new treatment modalities. CLINICAL PICTURE: A 65-year-old man with advanced emphysema, limited by crippling dyspnoea despite maximal medical therapy with inhaled bronchodilator therapy, methylxanthines and supplementary oxygen. TREATMENT: Physical reconditioning with a 4-week inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programme, followed by LVRS and a further 6-week outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation. OUTCOME: Dramatic improvements in spirometric indices, arterial blood gases, exercise capacity and overall functional status. Improvements maintained at one-year follow up period. CONCLUSIONS: LVRS with pulmonary rehabilitation is an exciting new treatment option in a select group of patients with advanced emphysema. Their role in improving overall performance status and quality of life should be considered in patients otherwise considered to have reached the limits of medical therapy.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 21.639182578794
keywords = capacity, volume
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/63. Is exercise tolerance limited by the heart or the lungs?

    This 55-year-old man with known rheumatic mitral valve disease is modestly disabled achieving a VO2max of 72% and a maximal power output of 76% of the predicted normal. His capacity to exercise is limited by dyspnea due to a reduction in his capacity to breathe. ipratropium bromide was initiated to maximize his expiratory flow and improve his ventilatory capacity. A trial of inhaled steroids produced no improvement. He was referred for rehabilitation and smoking cessation. A decision was made to continue surveillance, postponing mitral valve replacement.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 62.417547736381
keywords = capacity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/63. Upper airway obstruction due to rhinoscleroma: case report.

    rhinoscleroma is a very rare cause of upper airway obstruction with only isolated reports in the literature of rhinoscleroma with isolated tracheal obstruction. The course is usually chronic with the presentation most often being non-specific. We report a 54-year-old woman with progressive shortness of breath and wheezing over 7 years' duration. She was diagnosed and treated as bronchial asthma without improvement in her symptoms. At the time of referral to our institution, her flow-volume loop revealed fixed upper airway obstruction. Her chest radiography and other laboratory tests were normal. bronchoscopy revealed a 70-80% irregular concentric stenosis of the trachea beginning immediately below the vocal cords and extending 4 cm distally. biopsy showed characteristic Mikulicz histiocytes containing numerous gram-negative intracellular coccobacilli consistent with a diagnosis of rhinoscleroma. The patient was treated with laser resection of the stenosis followed by a course of ciprofloxcin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. She has remained asymptomatic over a year follow-up period and repeated biopsies have shown no evidence of recurrence.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = volume
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/63. A patient with a severe chronic airway obstruction and preserved exercise capacity (a case report).

    We report a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in whom severe lung function disorders are combined with completely preserved exercise capacity. We assessed the exercise capacity of a 44-year-old man (height 155 cm, BMI 19.6 kg.m-2, FEV1%pred. = 30.9%, FRC%pred. = 158%, KCO%pred. = 46.2%, PaO2 = 64.0 mmHg, Medical research Council dyspnea scale = 1, Baseline dyspnea Index = 10) by the 6-minute walking distance test (6MWD) and the symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a treadmill using the Bruce protocol. The patient was able to walk 667 meters in the test and achieved peak relative oxygen consumption (VO2/kg) of 21.9 mL.min-1.kg-1. We attribute the preserved exercise capacity of the patient to the combined beneficial effect of the following factors: 1. Efficient extraction of the hemoglobin-transported oxygen from the alveoli (P50 = 3.10 kPa). 2. Optimal right ventricle remodelling with mild hypertrophy, without dilatation and congestion. 3. Hypoxic normoxemia without polyglobulia, resulting in good rheologic properties of blood. 4. A preserved locomotory activity of the patient. Such a combination of severe lung function disorders with mildly pronounced dyspnea and preserved exercise capacity supports the concept that the function profile of COPD patients is multidimensional and therefore such patients should have a complete assessment of their disability condition.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 166.44679396368
keywords = capacity
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/63. Fibrothorax and severe lung restriction secondary to lupus pleuritis and its successful treatment by pleurectomy.

    Pleural disease is a common pulmonary manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that usually responds to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents. In the present report, a new approach, pleural decortication, was used in a patient with medically refractory chronic pleuritis secondary to severe SLE. A 26-year-old woman with known SLE developed progressive dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain over several months. The other systemic manifestations of her lupus were controlled with cyclophosphamide and prednisone. A computed tomography scan revealed a persistent, small, loculated right pleural effusion; pleural thickening; and atelectasis of the right middle and lower lobes. Pulmonary function tests showed a severe restrictive defect. The patient was disabled by her severe dyspnea despite maximal medical therapy, and, therefore, surgery was considered. A right thoracotomy revealed entrapment of the right lung by dense visceral pleura. Decortication was performed. On pathology, pleuritis with vascular pleural adhesions was found. No lupus pneumonitis was noted. Postoperatively, a significant clinical improvement in dyspnea was evident within several weeks. On a 6 min walk test, the patient achieved 384 m with a Borg dyspnea scale rating of 2 compared with 220 m and a Borg dyspnea scale rating of 4 preoperatively. Her forced vital capacity improved from 24% predicted to 47% predicted, and her total lung capacity improved from 35% predicted to 54% predicted. Medical therapy of systemic lupus erythematosus has been proven to be effective in controlling pleuritis in most cases. However, in the event of refractory pleuritis or pleural thickening, decortication may be a viable alternative.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 792.35403183202
keywords = vital capacity, capacity
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Dyspnea'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.