Cases reported "Dystonic Disorders"

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1/91. Italian family with cranial cervical dystonia: clinical and genetic study.

    A white Italian family affected by primary torsion dystonia (PTD) is described. The family phenotype most commonly presented with adult onset, cranial cervical involvement, and focal or segmental distribution without progression to generalization. Thirty-nine family members and nine spouses were studied. Five subjects received a diagnosis of definite PTD, three of probable PTD. Age at onset was in adulthood for all. In four definitely affected subjects, dystonia started in the cranial or cervical districts; in one it presented as writer's cramp. Familial writer's cramp also occurred in the family of the unrelated parent of the latter patient. The mean age at time of examination was 61.8 years in the individuals with a definite diagnosis; 60 in those with a probable diagnosis. At the time of examination, in most of the affected subjects, dystonia was focal; in three cases (two definitely and one probably affected), it was segmental. dna linkage analysis, although limited by the size of the family, suggested exclusion of linkage between the disease and known PTD loci (DYT6 and DYT7). The GAG deletion in the DYT1 gene was excluded in the proband and in the family member affected by writer's cramp.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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2/91. Do the same genes predispose to Gilles de la tourette syndrome and dystonia? Report of a new family and review of the literature.

    Gilles de la tourette syndrome (TS) and idiopathic focal torsion dystonia are both movement disorders in which the pathologic process is thought to arise within the basal ganglia. However, despite their possible functional links, they are clinically distinct and are generally considered to have different underlying etiologies. There are several reports in the literature that suggest a relationship between eye winking tics, excessive blinking, and blepharospasm and a report of the coexistence of tics and dystonia. We describe a three-generation family in which TS and dystonias cosegregate. In total, eight patients were affected, five with dystonia and three with TS/facial tics. One of the patients with historic evidence of dystonia subsequently died of motor neuron disease. The identification of this family further strengthens the evidence in favor of an etiologic relationship between some cases of Gilles de la tourette syndrome and focal dystonia.
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ranking = 1.4285756457826
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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3/91. dystonia, botulinum neurotoxin, and the aviator.

    dystonia is both a symptom and the name for group of illnesses called the dystonias. The physical manifestation consists of sustained, involuntary contractions of the muscles in one or more parts of the body, resulting in twisting or distortion of that part of the body. For focal dystonias including torticollis, blepharospasm and spasmodic dysphonia, botulinum toxin injections have become the treatment of choice because of the ability of this toxin to sufficiently weaken the muscle to reduce the spasm but not so much as to cause paralysis. This paper involves the fate of four airmen all afflicted with a form of dystonia who had been reviewed in the Aeromedical certification Division of the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute.
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ranking = 0.42857142857143
keywords = dystonia
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4/91. Changes of copper-transporting proteins and ceruloplasmin in the lentiform nuclei in primary adult-onset dystonia.

    A recent study reported an increase of brain tissue copper content in the lentiform nuclei of patients with primary adult-onset dystonia. In this study we analyze copper-metabolizing proteins (Menkes protein, Wilson protein, ceruloplasmin) by Western blot analysis in frozen brain tissue (lentiform nuclei) of 3 patients with primary dystonia. Menkes protein was reduced in all patients, while Wilson protein and ceruloplasmin were increased in the 2 patients with focal dystonia and reduced in the patient with generalized dystonia. Our data provides further evidence for a disturbance of copper metabolism in primary dystonia.
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ranking = 1.2857142857143
keywords = dystonia
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5/91. Hereditary juvenile-onset craniocervical predominant generalized dystonia with parkinsonism.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a unique hereditary, juvenile onset, craniocervical predominant, generalized dystonia and parkinsonism affecting four members of one family. family DESCRIPTION: A father and three of his four daughters presented to us over the past 30 years with a similar picture of generalized dystonia, starting in the craniocervical region in the second or third decade of life. They later developed moderate parkinsonism, mainly manifesting bradykinesia, rigidity and abnormal postural reflexes. Biochemical and genetic tests excluded Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease and Oppenheim's dystonia. CONCLUSION: This is a new type of familial dystonia-parkinsonism where the craniocervical dystonic symptoms are most prominent in the early stages while parkinsonism becomes the predominant problem later in life. A search for the genetic mutation in this family is underway.
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ranking = 1.1428571428571
keywords = dystonia
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6/91. Missense mutants inactivate guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I in hereditary progressive dystonia.

    Hereditary progressive dystonia (HPD) with marked diurnal fluctuation is caused by mutant guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase I (GCH). The clinical presentation of dominant HPD varies considerably. We proposed the hypothesis that a relative increase of mutant GCH capable of inhibiting normal GCH is responsible for heterogeneous phenotypic manifestations. In a Japanese family with a novel G90V mutation, an affected heterozygote had a higher mutant/normal mRNA ratio than an unaffected heterozygote. Co-expression analysis showed that mutant enzyme (GCH-G90V) inactivated the normal enzyme in the cos cells. Similarly, GCH-G203R showed the dominant negative effects. These results supported our proposed hypothesis.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = dystonia
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7/91. Unilateral lesions of the globus pallidus: report of four patients presenting with focal or segmental dystonia.

    OBJECTIVES: To interpret clinical features after unilateral lesions of the globus pallidus on the basis of physiology of the basal ganglia. methods: Four patients with unilateral lesions in the globus pallidus (GP) were clinically examined and the literature on patients with pallidal lesions was reviewed. RESULTS: Three patients presented with contralateral dystonia largely confined to one arm in one case and one leg in two cases. One patient had predominant contralateral hemiparkinsonism manifested mainly as micrographia and mild dystonia in one arm. The cause of the lesions was unknown in two patients. In the other two symptoms had developed after head trauma and after anoxia. All lesions involved the internal segment of the GP. Two patients, including the patient with hemiparkinsonism, had additional involvement of the external segment of the GP. In the literature reports on 26 patients with bilateral lesions restricted to the GP only two with unilateral lesions were found. The patients with bilateral pallidal lesions manifested with dystonia, parkinsonism, or abulia. One of the patients with unilateral GP lesions had contralateral hemidystonia, the other contralateral arm tremor. CONCLUSION: These cases emphasise the importance of the GP, particularly its internal segment, in the pathophysiology of dystonia.
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ranking = 1.2857142857143
keywords = dystonia
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8/91. Pallido-Luysio-Nigral atrophy revealed by rapidly progressive hemidystonia: a clinical, radiologic, functional, and neuropathologic study.

    Pallido-luysio-nigral atrophy (PLNA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease in which the clinical and radiologic correlates have not yet been clearly established. A 62-year-old man insidiously developed dystonic postures, choreoathetoid movements, slowness, and stiffness, which initially affected the right hand and foot and progressively spread to the entire right side. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed increased signal intensity in both left and right medial pallida and in the left substantia nigra. Tests using HMPAO-SPECT and FDG-PET demonstrated left cortical hyperperfusion and hypermetabolism, whereas the left lenticular nucleus was slightly hypometabolic. At age 65, abnormal movements and postures involved all four limbs and the axis causing major gait disturbances, and facial and bulbar muscles atrophied resulting in dysarthria, dysphagia, and impaired breathing. Diffuse amyotrophy and fasciculations also appeared. death occurred at age 66, 4 years after onset. At autopsy, severe bilateral neuronal loss and gliosis restricted to the pallidum, the subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra, and the hypoglossal nucleus were noted, accounting for the diagnosis of PLNA with lower motor neuron involvement. Progressive hemidystonia with adult onset represents an unusual clinical presentation for this disorder. Moreover, this observation indicates that a diagnosis of PLNA should be considered for specific magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT, and/or PET data, and suggests that in PLNA, pallidal dysfunction might play a key role in the dystonic presentation.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = dystonia
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9/91. A Yorkshire family with adult-onset cranio-cervical primary torsion dystonia.

    Although a family history is described in approximately 20% of patients, large families with adult-onset craniocervical primary (idiopathic) torsion dystonia (PTD) are rare. We report a new British family with cranio-cervical dystonia. Seventeen members of the family were examined. Five cases were diagnosed as definite PTD and one as probable PTD. Mean age at onset was 29 years (range, 19-40 yrs). The phenotype was characterized by adult-onset cranio-cervical dystonia in all affected cases. A few cases had additional voice tremor and/or postural arm tremor. The GAG deletion in the DYT1 gene was excluded in the index case. Linkage analysis was performed between the disease and several marker loci spanning DYT6 and DYT7 regions, and haplotypes were reconstructed in all subjects. Although linkage analysis was not completely informative, reconstructed haplotypes excluded linkage between the disease and either DYT6 or DYT7. This report confirms that familial cranio-cervical dystonia is genetically heterogeneous, and further studies of other PTD families with similar clinical features are needed to identify other new genes.
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ranking = 1.1428613600683
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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10/91. life-threatening dystonia-dyskinesias in a child: successful treatment with bilateral pallidal stimulation.

    We report a 13-year-old boy who developed severe, refractory dystonia-dyskinesias as an abrupt worsening of a previously nonprogressive movement disorder. The movements became continuous, requiring artificial respiration and continuous sedation in the intensive-care unit. Various drugs and drug combinations failed to achieve control. The child was then treated successfully with bilateral pallidal (GPi) stimulation as shown in the videotape. Four months later and without medication, the boy regained autonomous gait and audible speech; his neurologic condition continues to improve.
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ranking = 0.71918563210886
keywords = dystonia, dyskinesia
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