Cases reported "Echinococcosis, Hepatic"

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1/16. Postoperative alveolar hydatid disease with cutaneous-subcutaneous involvement.

    The first Japanese case of alveolar hydatid disease with cutaneous-subcutaneous lesions is reported. The patient, a 58-year-old man who developed an indurated subcutaneous tumor on the right side of the abdomen, had had partial hepatectomy of the right lobe for echinococcosis thirteen years earlier. Clinically, the tumor was adherent with a fistulosis communication to deeper structures. Histopathologically, multiple PAS-positive cuticular layers with foreign body granulomas and fibrosis were observed between the dermis and subcutaneous fatty tissue. Surgical excision of the swelling provided the patient with temporary relief. To our knowledge, only eight cases of subcutaneous alveolar hydatid disease have been reported throughout the world. Ours, the ninth case, highlights the importance and difficulty of treating of alveolar hydatid disease.
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2/16. Management of a patient with hepatic-thoracic-pelvic and omental hydatid cysts and post-operative bilio-cutaneous fistula: a case report.

    In humans, most hydatid cysts occur in the liver and 75% of these are single. Our patient was a 31 year-old male. His magnetic resonance imaging (MR) showed one cyst (15 x 20 cm) in the right lobe and three cysts (5 x 6 cm, 8 x 6 cm, and 5 x 5 cm) in the left lobe of the liver, two cysts (4 x 5 cm and 5 x 5 cm) on the greater omentum, and two cysts (15 x 10 and 10 x 10 cm) in the pelvis. The abdomen was entered first by a bilateral subcostal incision and then by a Phennenstiel incision. Partial cystectomy capitonnage was done on the liver cysts; the cysts on the omentum were excised, and the pelvic cysts were enucleated. The cyst in the right lobe of the liver was in communication with a thoracic cyst. An air leak developed from the thoracic cyst which had underwater drainage and bile drainage from the drain in the cavity of the right lobe cyst. Sphincterotomy was done on the seventh post-operative day by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). No significant effect on mean bile output from the fistula occurred. octreotide therapy was initiated, but due to abdominal pain and gas bloating the patient felt and could not tolerate, it was stopped on the fourth day; besides, it had no decreasing effect on bile output during the 4 days. Because air and bile leak continued and he had bile stained sputum, he was operated on on post-operative day 18. By right thoracotomy, the cavity and the leaking branches were closed. By right subcostal incision, cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of the choledochus were done. On post-operative day 30, he was sent home with the T-tube and the drain in the cavity. After 3 months post-operatively, a second T-tube cholangiography was done, and a narrowing in the distal right hepatic duct and a minimal narrowing in the distal left hepatic duct were exposed. Balloon dilatation was done by way of a T-tube. Bile drainage ceased. There was no collection in the cavity in follow-up CT scanning, so the drain in the cavity, and the drainage catheter in the right hepatic duct were extracted. Evaluation of the biliary ductal system is important in bilio-cutaneous fistulas, and balloon dilatation is very effective in fistulas due to narrowing of the ducts.
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3/16. Hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma mimicking hydatid cyst. Report of a case.

    We report on a case of hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma in a 44-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with upper abdominal discomfort. Ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) showed a cystic mass resembling hydatid cyst. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) demonstrated communication with the left hepatic duct. At surgery, a cystic mass with communication to the left hepatic duct was found and resected en bloc with a margin of normal liver tissue. Histological examination showed a hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma.
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4/16. Hepatic hydatid cyst rupturing into sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity.

    A ten-year-old male child presented with a large hepatic hydatid cyst which ruptured into the sub-diaphragmatic space and pericardial cavity, giving rise to a pericardial effusion. This communication between the hydatid cyst and the pericardium was documented on computerised tomographic scan of the chest and abdomen. The cyst was aspirated carefully and then enucleated. There was an associated right-sided reactionary pleural effusion. The pericardial effusion and pleural effusion resolved on albendazole therapy and did not require surgical intervention.
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5/16. Sonographic and computed tomographic demonstration of hydatid cysts communicating with the biliary tree.

    Hepatic hydatid disease is usually silent and discovered incidentally. rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tree is a serious complication and produces a clinical picture of biliary obstruction. We present the cases of 2 patients who had only nonspecific symptoms and laboratory test results indicative of biliary tract obstruction. The results of sonographic examinations of both patients strongly suggested the presence of hepatic hydatid cysts communicating with the biliary tree. CT examination provided additional information in 1 patient but only confirmed the sonographic findings in the other. Both cases were surgically confirmed. Demonstration of the cyst and intrabiliary hydatid contents should form the basis for the diagnosis of a hydatid cyst's rupture into the biliary tree; detecting the point of communication further supports the diagnosis. An accurate preoperative diagnosis of this disease is essential for its prompt surgical management.
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6/16. Cholecysto-hydatid cyst fistula.

    A 27-year-old woman developed recurrent hydatid of liver. CT scan showed unilocular cysts in segments IV and VII. Intraoperatively, there was a fistulous communication between the gall bladder and the cyst in segment IV. Partial pericystectomy along with cholecystectomy was done for the segment IV cyst; percutaneous aspiration, instillation and re-aspiration using hypertonic saline was done for the cyst in segment VII. This was followed by albendazole treatment.
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7/16. common bile duct obstruction caused by the hydatid daughter cysts.

    echinococcosis is a human parasitary disease. In 2002, 29 new cases of liver echinococcosis were recorded in croatia. liver is the most common site of hydatid cysts. Nine patients with echinoccocal liver disease were operated in our department in 2002. Here we present a case where a patient with verified hydatid cyst in the left liver lobe developed high fever, jaundice, nausea, vomiting and pain in the upper abdomen. The symptoms were initially ascribed to the acute cholangitis. After unsuccessful antibiotic treatment, computerized tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were performed, demonstrating daughter cysts in the common bile duct. During ERCP, papilotomy was made and daughter cysts were extracted. Hydatid cyst was surgically removed, and a communication between the cyst and left hepatic duct was noted during surgery. Pericystectomy, choledochotomy, removal of remaining daughter cysts from the common bile duct, and sutures of left hepatic duct were performed. The patient recovered fully after the surgery. One of the possible complications of the liver hydatid cysts is the communication between cyst and the biliary tree. Such communications are usually asymptomatic, but symptoms can also mimic acute cholangitis and jaundice, which may lead to the misdiagnosis of the patient's condition.
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8/16. Endoscopic management of biliary hydatid disease: report on six cases.

    Six patients with a ruptured echinococcus liver cyst were treated by means of endoscopy. The treatment consisted of endoscopic sphincterotomy, cyst material extraction and hypotonic saline lavage via a nasobiliary catheter. In five patients successful complete endoscopic treatment was achieved, including removal of daughter cysts. In the sixth patient only partial treatment could be performed with clearance of daughter cysts since there was no communication with the main liver cyst. Follow-up ultrasonography, CT and ERCP in all patients showed complete cure and no evidence of disease recurrence in five of them. The sixth patient required surgery one month after endoscopic treatment of the acute biliary obstruction.
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9/16. jaundice caused by hydatid disease of the liver.

    Between 1980 and 1985, 40 patients were treated surgically for hydatid disease of the liver. In 4 cases (10%) jaundice was the first and most conspicuous sign of this disease. The patients originated from spain, morocco, turkey and lebanon. In 2 of these cases the initial diagnosis was hepatitis; one patient was operated on for suspected acute cholecystitis. All 4 patients had an eosinophilia and positive hydatid serology. Hydatid material was found in the biliary tract in two cases, while bile-stained hydatid fluid proved that there was a communication between cystic cavity and biliary tract in the other two patients. Obstruction of the common bile duct by hydatid elements causes jaundice and probably also cholangitis. Calcifications in the cyst are no guarantee against future complications. Surgery is the treatment of choice. When patients from an endemic area present with jaundice, hydatid disease of the liver should be suspected, particularly if eosinophilia also exists.
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10/16. rupture of a hydatid cyst of the liver into the biliary tract.

    rupture of a hydatid cyst into the biliary tract occurs in 5% to 10% of patients with hydatid disease of the liver. The communication between the hydatid cyst cavity and the biliary tree may produce intermittent or progressive obstructive jaundice. The presence of such jaundice complicates the diagnosis since it resembles other biliary disorders such as stone or infection. We treated six patients with hepatic hydatid cysts, four with minute fissures and two with wide ruptures into the biliary tract. The pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnostic procedures and treatment are discussed.
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