Cases reported "Echinococcosis, Hepatic"

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1/60. Pseudocholelithiasis in an elderly man with calcified hydatid cysts.

    A 69 year old man with intrabiliary rupture of a calcified echinococcal cyst mimicking acute cholelithiasis is discussed. This case is of interest because the correct diagnosis was not recognized preoperatively despite the fact that certain aspects of the illness were classic features of this complication of hydatid disease. Although this is a common complication of hydatid disease, which is well recognized in other countries, only seven cases have been reported in the American literature. Treatment of our patient included successful use of a Roux-en-Y drainage procedure which, to the best of our knowledge, has not previously been employed in treating this disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/60. Postoperative alveolar hydatid disease with cutaneous-subcutaneous involvement.

    The first Japanese case of alveolar hydatid disease with cutaneous-subcutaneous lesions is reported. The patient, a 58-year-old man who developed an indurated subcutaneous tumor on the right side of the abdomen, had had partial hepatectomy of the right lobe for echinococcosis thirteen years earlier. Clinically, the tumor was adherent with a fistulosis communication to deeper structures. Histopathologically, multiple PAS-positive cuticular layers with foreign body granulomas and fibrosis were observed between the dermis and subcutaneous fatty tissue. Surgical excision of the swelling provided the patient with temporary relief. To our knowledge, only eight cases of subcutaneous alveolar hydatid disease have been reported throughout the world. Ours, the ninth case, highlights the importance and difficulty of treating of alveolar hydatid disease.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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3/60. Single stage removal of right pulmonary and hepatic hydatid cysts.

    A case of hydatid disease of lung and liver is described. The patient was investigated because of a circumscribed shadow in the right lung on chest skiagram. Another cystic shadow was picked up in the right lobe of liver on ultrasound examination. Both the cysts in right lung and liver were removed simultaneously through a right thoracophrenotomy. Emphasis is being laid on the utilization of single stage thoracotomy as an operative procedure of choice for hydatid cysts of right lung and liver.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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4/60. Management of a patient with hepatic-thoracic-pelvic and omental hydatid cysts and post-operative bilio-cutaneous fistula: a case report.

    In humans, most hydatid cysts occur in the liver and 75% of these are single. Our patient was a 31 year-old male. His magnetic resonance imaging (MR) showed one cyst (15 x 20 cm) in the right lobe and three cysts (5 x 6 cm, 8 x 6 cm, and 5 x 5 cm) in the left lobe of the liver, two cysts (4 x 5 cm and 5 x 5 cm) on the greater omentum, and two cysts (15 x 10 and 10 x 10 cm) in the pelvis. The abdomen was entered first by a bilateral subcostal incision and then by a Phennenstiel incision. Partial cystectomy capitonnage was done on the liver cysts; the cysts on the omentum were excised, and the pelvic cysts were enucleated. The cyst in the right lobe of the liver was in communication with a thoracic cyst. An air leak developed from the thoracic cyst which had underwater drainage and bile drainage from the drain in the cavity of the right lobe cyst. Sphincterotomy was done on the seventh post-operative day by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). No significant effect on mean bile output from the fistula occurred. octreotide therapy was initiated, but due to abdominal pain and gas bloating the patient felt and could not tolerate, it was stopped on the fourth day; besides, it had no decreasing effect on bile output during the 4 days. Because air and bile leak continued and he had bile stained sputum, he was operated on on post-operative day 18. By right thoracotomy, the cavity and the leaking branches were closed. By right subcostal incision, cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of the choledochus were done. On post-operative day 30, he was sent home with the T-tube and the drain in the cavity. After 3 months post-operatively, a second T-tube cholangiography was done, and a narrowing in the distal right hepatic duct and a minimal narrowing in the distal left hepatic duct were exposed. Balloon dilatation was done by way of a T-tube. bile drainage ceased. There was no collection in the cavity in follow-up CT scanning, so the drain in the cavity, and the drainage catheter in the right hepatic duct were extracted. Evaluation of the biliary ductal system is important in bilio-cutaneous fistulas, and balloon dilatation is very effective in fistulas due to narrowing of the ducts.
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ranking = 8
keywords = operative
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5/60. Mobile right atrial hydatid cyst with multiorgan involvement.

    A 25-year-old woman who had hydatid cysts in her lung was referred to our clinic for the hydatid cyst in her cardiac localization. Multiple hydatid cysts of different cardiac localizations were diagnosed by two-dimensional echocardiography, confirmed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, supported by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for echinococcosis. Surgical resection was performed for the right atrial cyst and pathology confirmed the diagnosis. Oral albendazole treatment was given postoperatively. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 49:204-207, 2000.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/60. Treatment of postoperative bronchobiliary fistula by nasobiliary drainage.

    Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition. It may present as a complication of echinococcal or amebic liver disease. Management of such a fistula can be very difficult and is often associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with a BBF after a one-stage operation for hydatid cysts of the liver and lung that were approached via thoracotomy and transdiaphragmatic incision. The cause of the BBF was an inflammatory collection in the residual liver cavity due to inadequate drainage. This collection eroded the sutured diaphragm, and because of the existing adhesions, it perforated directly into the bronchial system at the area of the previous cystectomy. Initially, endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed to achieve biliary decompression by equalizing intrabiliary and duodenal pressure, but no significant improvement was seen. Subsequently, nasobiliary drainage was instituted by means of an endoscopically inserted, nasobiliary catheter, which further reduced biliary pressure and facilitated biliary flow to the duodenum, as opposed to the fistulous tract. The fistula was successfully closed in a short time. This conservative method reduces the risks of reoperation. Therefore, it should be considered the treatment of choice in the management of bronchobiliary fistula.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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7/60. Intrabiliary rupture of hydatid cyst: diagnosis with MRI and hepatobiliary isotope study.

    Intrabiliary rupture is the most common complication of hepatic hydatid cyst yet it is unusual, occurring in only 3-17% of cases. The diagnosis is rarely difficult on ultrasound and CT when typical radiological features are present. In rare cases of complete evacuation, when characteristic findings of hydatid cyst are absent or when there is no evidence of the previous existence of liver hydatid cyst, the diagnosis may be difficult. In difficult cases, MRI, MRCP, ERCP and (99)Tc(m)-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy are employed. We present a rare case of surgical obstructive jaundice due to rupture of a liver hydatid cyst into the biliary tract and gall bladder, with complete evacuation of its contents leading to misdiagnosis on CT and ultrasound. MRCP and (99)Tc(m)-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy were able to establish a firm pre-operative diagnosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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8/60. Cystic echinococcosis with perforation into the biliary tract in an eight-year-old girl.

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic infection caused by echinococcus granulosus and is still frequent in endemic areas. CE is predominantly localised in the liver. The therapy of choice is the surgical sanitation of the lesions, increasingly through interventional procedures such as percutaneous punctation of the cysts, aspiration of the cystic fluid, instillation of a protoscolicidal solution and reaspiration of this solution (PAIR). However, in some cases, such as perforation into the biliary tract, PAIR is not feasible. We report on an eight-year-old girl who suffered from CE with perforation of one cyst into the biliary tract. The diagnosis was confirmed by ERCP and cholangioscopy and a right hemihepatectomy was performed. The girl received adjuvant chemotherapy with albendazol perioperatively and is still asymptomatic with no indications of disease 10 months after the operation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/60. Endoscopic therapy in the management of hepatobiliary hydatid disease.

    Hydatid disease constitutes a serious public health problem throughout the world, especially in endemic areas, despite the use of various kinds of preventive measures. Currently, there are three treatment options for hepatic hydatid disease including surgery, PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, and re-aspiration), and chemotherapy with benzimidazole compounds. Each of these therapeutic modalities has limitations depending on the individual case. The authors review the use of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of hepatobiliary hydatid disease (HHD) to clarify its place in the treatment algorithm among surgical, medical, and percutaneous measures. ERCP in the preoperative period: (1) defines the cystobiliary relationship to help in surgery planning, (2) permits evaluation for acute conditions like cholangitis and obstruction so that subsequent surgery can be performed on an elective basis, (3) may give permanent cure specifically in cases of frank intrabiliary rupture if evacuation of biliary tract and cystic cavity is manageable, and (4) when combined with preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy may decrease the incidence of the development of postoperative external fistula. ERCP in the postoperative period: (1) can help to clarify the causes of ongoing or recurrent symptoms or laboratory abnormalities, (2) may help to resolve the obstruction or cholangitis due to residual material in biliary ducts, (3) may provide the chance to manage postoperative external biliary fistulae, and (4) may be a realistic solution for secondary biliary strictures. Considering the current literature and adding this experience, the authors propose a new treatment algorithm in HHD including medical, surgical, PAIR, and ERCP-related therapies. To illustrate the algorithm, a case is presented of a patient who had a persistent external biliary fistula in the postoperative period and was managed successfully by endoscopic approach.
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ranking = 6
keywords = operative
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10/60. Transdiaphragmatic extension of hepatic hydatid cyst.

    Transdiaphragmatic extension of hydatid cyst (HC) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) of the liver is a rare phenomenon. We report a case that presented as a right middle lobe consolidation. The diagnosis of transdiaphragmatic extension of hepatic hydatid cyst was suspected on CT scan of the chest and abdomen, and confirmed operatively. A successful outcome was achieved by a combination of pre- and post-operative albendazole therapy combined with surgery.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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