Cases reported "Echovirus Infections"

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1/17. Echovirus 11 sepsis in a neonate: report of one case.

    Neonates infected with nonpolio enteroviruses are at high risk for developing significant illness, including sepsis-like illness, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis and/or hepatitis. Echoviruses and group B coxsackieviruses account for the majority of neonatal enterovirus infections. We reported a case of echovirus 11 infection in newborn associated with maternal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first reported fatal case of neonatal echovirus infection in taiwan. Eventually, the baby expired because of severe sepsis-like illness, fulminant hepatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and extensive hemorrhagic manifestations in spite of intensive care, intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and exchange transfusion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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2/17. Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agammaglobulinemia: case report and literature review.

    Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis is a well-recognized complication in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). The majority of published cases refers to its occurrence in patients on no replacement therapy or on only intramuscular immunoglobulin. The advent of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in the early 1980s and its widespread use in XLA was thought to have virtually eradicated enteroviral meningoencephalitis in these patients. We describe the development of echovirus meningoencephalitis in an 11-year-old boy on regular IVIg replacement whose serum IgG levels were maintained at between 6 and 8 g/L (NR 6-13 g/L). Treatment with daily high-dose IVIg was commenced, with significant clinical improvement being noted within a few weeks in association with a reduction in blood-brain barrier permeability. The persistence of live virus, however, necessitated the use of intraventricular immunoglobulin. The virus proved resistant to two courses of specific intraventricular immunoglobulin and a 6-week course of oral ribavirin and eventually proved fatal 5 months after presentation. In view of the therapeutic uncertainties we have reviewed the use of immunoglobulin in the treatment of enteroviral meningoencephalitis over the past 6 years.
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ranking = 8
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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3/17. Neonatal echovirus encephalitis with white matter necrosis.

    The authors report a case of neonatal echovirus encephalitis associated with white matter necrosis. The pattern of illness in the neonatal period was diphasic, marked by hyperthermia and the occurrence of seizures. Echovirus was recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at one month of age showed right periventricular white matter necrosis. The infant exhibited mild left hemiparesis. Cerebral MRI at 6 months of age showed a delay in myelination in the right hemisphere. Echovirus encephalitis in the neonate can cause brain damage.
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ranking = 2.8641019288688
keywords = encephalitis
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4/17. Persistent enterovirus infection in culture-negative meningoencephalitis: demonstration by enzymatic rna amplification.

    Chronic meningoencephalitis due to enterovirus infection can occur in patients with antibody deficiencies. A modified polymerase chain reaction technique demonstrated persistent echovirus 11 infection in such a patient, despite negative routine viral cultures and negative routine nucleic acid hybridization. Although the sequence of echovirus 11 has not yet been determined, genomic conservation among the enteroviruses is significant, permitting detection of echovirus 11 with a primer pair and probe derived from enterovirus serotypes that have been fully sequenced. This study provides the first definitive evidence for the persistence of enterovirus infection with negative viral cultures.
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ranking = 5
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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5/17. Intraventricular gamma-globulin for the management of enterovirus encephalitis.

    Although bacterial infections predominate in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, patients who do not produce normal amounts of immunoglobulin also have an increased incidence of viral infections. This is particularly true of infections with enteroviruses. Echovirus encephalitis has been a major problem for patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Neurologic damage, frequently resulting in death, has been common in such patients. Because there is an obligatory extracellular phase in the cell to cell spread of enteroviruses, therapy with immunoglobulin has been attempted. In certain patients intravenous and intrathecal gammaglobulin has temporarily halted progression of the disease, but no patients have been cured by this approach. In this report we detail treatment of three children with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia who had encephalitis caused by echovirus infections. Despite doses of intravenous immunoglobulin that maintained the patients' IgG levels within the normal range, their condition deteriorated in all cases. Treatment with intraventricular immunoglobulin was then tried. In all three cases cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and cell counts returned to normal after this treatment and the echoviruses can no longer be isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. Follow-up time has ranged from 18 months to 4 years. Ommaya reservoirs were placed into the lateral ventricle of each patient and concentrated (6%) immunoglobulin (Sandoglobulin) was injected into the reservoir on a daily basis. On Days 1 through 7 of the regimen patients were given 120, 300, 450, 510, 540 and 600 mg of IgG, respectively. patients then received 300 mg daily for periods ranging from 1 week to 1 month. Cultures of cerebrospinal fluid removed from the reservoir were repeatedly analyzed to determine the need for further treatment. Clinically the patients improved markedly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ranking = 2.8641019288688
keywords = encephalitis
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6/17. Severe encephalitis associated with disseminated echovirus 22 infection.

    Severe encephalitis associated with disseminated echovirus 22 infection occurred in a previously healthy 5-month-old boy. Echovirus 22 was diagnosed by a seroconversion both in serum and cerebrospinal fluid and by isolation of the virus from several stool samples. The child damaged severely and at the age of 8 1/2 months infantile spasms developed.
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ranking = 2.3867516073906
keywords = encephalitis
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7/17. Lymphocyte analysis in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and isolated growth hormone deficiency after development of echovirus dermatomyositis and meningoencephalitis.

    A previously described patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and growth hormone deficiency developed an echovirus-associated meningoencephalitis and dermatomyositis-like syndrome while being treated with intramuscular gamma globulin and human growth hormone. Initiation of high-dose intravenous gamma globulin resulted in resolution of the clinical symptoms and the patient has remained asymptomatic over the past 55 months. Lymphocyte phenotype analysis at the time of presentation with echovirus infection revealed an increase in CD2 , CD16 , HNK-1 lymphocytes, a decrease in CD4 T cells as well as absence of B cells. This elevation in the LGL/NK phenotype resolved with clinical improvement. In addition, there was evidence of lymphocyte activation following the development of echovirus infection (increase in HLA-DR expression and elevated serum IL-2 receptor levels) which resolved with clinical improvement. A muscle biopsy obtained during the period of the dermatomyositis-like syndrome demonstrated a CD8 lymphocytic infiltrate very similar to the observations in classical dermatomyositis. Taken together, these findings suggest that growth hormone therapy in this patient failed to alter the humoral immunodeficiency. In addition, serum IL-2 receptor levels and lymphocyte phenotyping may be useful adjuncts for monitoring echovirus disease in immunodeficient patients.
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ranking = 5
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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8/17. Successful treatment of echovirus meningoencephalitis in sex-linked agammaglobulinaemia by intrathecal and intravenous injection of high titre gammaglobulin.

    A 7-year-old boy with sex-linked agammaglobulinaemia developed meningoencephalitis caused by echovirus type 11. He had convulsions, right hemiplegia, cortical motor aphasia, left abducens nerve paralysis, left hypoglossal nerve paralysis, and later became unconscious. Treatment by intravenous injection of conventional gammaglobulin and intrathecal alpha-interferon brought no clinical improvement, but intrathecal administration together with intravenous injection of gammaglobulin containing a high titre of anti-echovirus type 11 antibody was associated with a dramatic improvement in his clinical symptoms. After subsequent periodical (once or twice a week) administration of specific gammaglobulin for 8 months, the echovirus in his cerebrospinal fluid was no longer detected. These findings suggest that intrathecal injection combined with intravenous injection of high titre anti-echovirus type 11 antibody was effective in treating this case of echovirus meningoencephalitis in sex-linked agammaglobulinaemia.
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ranking = 6
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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9/17. Echovirus polymyositis in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Failure of high-dose intravenous gammaglobulin therapy and review of the literature.

    A 29-year-old man with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia was treated with prednisone and methotrexate for polymyositis. Subsequently, it was established that disseminated echovirus 11 infection was causing the polymyositis. Treatment with large doses of intravenous gammaglobulin did not result in improvement. Viral cultures of blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid gave positive results throughout treatment and at postmortem examination. Multiple cultures of other tissues, including muscle, also gave positive results at postmortem examination. Severity of infection and treatment with prednisone and methotrexate prior to referral, diagnosis, and gammaglobulin treatment may explain the lack of response. A review of 23 cases of echovirus infection in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia revealed that the infection in these patients may cause meningoencephalitis or a polymyositis-like syndrome or both. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents, the standard therapy for polymyositis, is contraindicated, and intravenous or intraventricular gammaglobulin or both may be helpful.
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ranking = 1
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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10/17. Echovirus meningomyeloencephalitis with administration of intrathecal immunoglobulin.

    Echovirus meningomyeloencephalitis was treated with cerebral intraventricular immunoglobulin. This case includes a complete examination of the central nervous system (CNS) supported by viral culture studies, immunoperoxidase staining and electron microscopy. Neuronal loss was most severe in the cerebellum and spinal cord. This may lead to the ataxia and a poliomyelitis-like syndrome often seen in cases of echovirus meningomyeloencephalitis. Focal encephalitic lesions, antigen-antibody reactions and live virus were found at numerous levels of the CNS in spite of intrathecal and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. This mode of therapy and the electron microscopic features noted in echovirus infections are discussed.
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ranking = 2.8641019288688
keywords = encephalitis
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