Cases reported "Echovirus Infections"

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11/76. Severe echovirus 30 infection in twin neonates.

    Although enteroviruses can cause overwhelming and fatal systemic infections in neonates, such severe neonatal infections remain uncommon and rarely involve both of twin neonates at the same time. We report the cases of twin neonates who developed fever initially, and then progressed to disseminated systemic disease with marked thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and hepatic failure. One of the neonates died and the other survived. Both neonates were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and maternal fresh frozen plasma was also given to the neonate who survived. Virus cultures from the nasopharynx, rectum and cerebral spinal fluid of both neonates yielded enterovirus, later typed as echovirus 30. The surviving neonate had normal development without obvious sequelae during a follow-up period of 1 year. The major determinant of the survival from severe neonatal enterovirus infection might have been the pre-existing severity of the disease before treatment, and complete recovery could be expected if the infant survived the acute stage of illness. ( info)

12/76. Acute flaccid paralysis from echovirus type 33 infection.

    During a community echovirus type 33 outbreak, the virus was detected in the feces and cerebrospinal fluid of a 3-year-old boy with right arm weakness that followed a mild nonspecific febrile illness. This is the first time an association between echovirus type 33 infection and acute flaccid paralysis has been reported. ( info)

13/76. Masticator myopathy.

    A 31-year-old woman developed low-grade fever and pain and swelling of the masticatory muscles. A T2-weighted magnetic resonance image showed high signal intensity in these muscles. Coxsackie B3 and echo 30 viruses were detected from a nasopharyngeal swab and feces, respectively. The clinical symptoms accompanied a marked decline in the serum immunoglobulin g level with progressive eosinophilia. Her symptoms disappeared by 8 weeks after onset. She was diagnosed as having masticator myopathy, which has rarely been reported in humans. The present case suggests that masticator myopathy is associated with coxsackie or echo virus infection. ( info)

14/76. Echovirus 11 sepsis in a neonate: report of one case.

    Neonates infected with nonpolio enteroviruses are at high risk for developing significant illness, including sepsis-like illness, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis and/or hepatitis. Echoviruses and group B coxsackieviruses account for the majority of neonatal enterovirus infections. We reported a case of echovirus 11 infection in newborn associated with maternal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first reported fatal case of neonatal echovirus infection in taiwan. Eventually, the baby expired because of severe sepsis-like illness, fulminant hepatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and extensive hemorrhagic manifestations in spite of intensive care, intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and exchange transfusion. ( info)

15/76. Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agammaglobulinemia: case report and literature review.

    Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis is a well-recognized complication in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). The majority of published cases refers to its occurrence in patients on no replacement therapy or on only intramuscular immunoglobulin. The advent of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in the early 1980s and its widespread use in XLA was thought to have virtually eradicated enteroviral meningoencephalitis in these patients. We describe the development of echovirus meningoencephalitis in an 11-year-old boy on regular IVIg replacement whose serum IgG levels were maintained at between 6 and 8 g/L (NR 6-13 g/L). Treatment with daily high-dose IVIg was commenced, with significant clinical improvement being noted within a few weeks in association with a reduction in blood-brain barrier permeability. The persistence of live virus, however, necessitated the use of intraventricular immunoglobulin. The virus proved resistant to two courses of specific intraventricular immunoglobulin and a 6-week course of oral ribavirin and eventually proved fatal 5 months after presentation. In view of the therapeutic uncertainties we have reviewed the use of immunoglobulin in the treatment of enteroviral meningoencephalitis over the past 6 years. ( info)

16/76. Fatal illness associated with pulmonary hypertension in a neonate caused by intrauterine echovirus 11 infection.

    Nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) infections are known to cause a wide range of illnesses in the neonatal period. In most cases, NPEV is presumed to be contracted during birth. Intrauterine NPEV infections occur infrequently. A case of intrauterine echovirus 11 infection with pneumonia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and purpura fulminans is presented. ( info)

17/76. Neonatal echovirus encephalitis with white matter necrosis.

    The authors report a case of neonatal echovirus encephalitis associated with white matter necrosis. The pattern of illness in the neonatal period was diphasic, marked by hyperthermia and the occurrence of seizures. Echovirus was recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at one month of age showed right periventricular white matter necrosis. The infant exhibited mild left hemiparesis. Cerebral MRI at 6 months of age showed a delay in myelination in the right hemisphere. Echovirus encephalitis in the neonate can cause brain damage. ( info)

18/76. Persistent enterovirus infection in culture-negative meningoencephalitis: demonstration by enzymatic rna amplification.

    Chronic meningoencephalitis due to enterovirus infection can occur in patients with antibody deficiencies. A modified polymerase chain reaction technique demonstrated persistent echovirus 11 infection in such a patient, despite negative routine viral cultures and negative routine nucleic acid hybridization. Although the sequence of echovirus 11 has not yet been determined, genomic conservation among the enteroviruses is significant, permitting detection of echovirus 11 with a primer pair and probe derived from enterovirus serotypes that have been fully sequenced. This study provides the first definitive evidence for the persistence of enterovirus infection with negative viral cultures. ( info)

19/76. Congenital echo virus infection--morphological and virological study of fetal and placental tissue.

    A prospective study of 78 pregnant women was undertaken to detect maternal enterovirus infection. Maternal faecal specimens and blood samples, placental and fetal tissue were taken for viral study, electron microscopy, histochemistry, and morphological examination. We present the post-mortem findings in three fetuses whose maternal infection was detected before delivery by isolation of ECHO virus type 33 and type 27 from faecal specimens and/or placental and fetal tissues. The morphological aspects were similar in all cases and included an acute infection of the placenta and hypoxic/hypotensive injury to fetal organs. In one case, viral particles were detected by electron microscopy of the fetal liver. This series of cases of intrauterine ECHO virus infection confirms the potential gravity of such infection during pregnancy and the need to prevent enteroviral disease. ( info)

20/76. Intraventricular gamma-globulin for the management of enterovirus encephalitis.

    Although bacterial infections predominate in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, patients who do not produce normal amounts of immunoglobulin also have an increased incidence of viral infections. This is particularly true of infections with enteroviruses. Echovirus encephalitis has been a major problem for patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. Neurologic damage, frequently resulting in death, has been common in such patients. Because there is an obligatory extracellular phase in the cell to cell spread of enteroviruses, therapy with immunoglobulin has been attempted. In certain patients intravenous and intrathecal gammaglobulin has temporarily halted progression of the disease, but no patients have been cured by this approach. In this report we detail treatment of three children with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia who had encephalitis caused by echovirus infections. Despite doses of intravenous immunoglobulin that maintained the patients' IgG levels within the normal range, their condition deteriorated in all cases. Treatment with intraventricular immunoglobulin was then tried. In all three cases cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and cell counts returned to normal after this treatment and the echoviruses can no longer be isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid. Follow-up time has ranged from 18 months to 4 years. Ommaya reservoirs were placed into the lateral ventricle of each patient and concentrated (6%) immunoglobulin (Sandoglobulin) was injected into the reservoir on a daily basis. On Days 1 through 7 of the regimen patients were given 120, 300, 450, 510, 540 and 600 mg of IgG, respectively. patients then received 300 mg daily for periods ranging from 1 week to 1 month. Cultures of cerebrospinal fluid removed from the reservoir were repeatedly analyzed to determine the need for further treatment. Clinically the patients improved markedly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ( info)
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