Cases reported "Ectodermal Dysplasia"

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1/8. skin fragility and hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia resulting from ablation of plakophilin 1.

    We report a 2-year-old boy with an unusual autosomal recessively inherited skin disease comprising trauma-induced skin fragility and congenital ectodermal dysplasia affecting hair, nails and sweat glands. skin biopsy showed widening of intercellular spaces between keratinocytes and ultrastructural findings of small, poorly formed desmosomes with reduced connections to the keratin filament cytoskeleton. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a complete absence of staining for the accessory desmosomal plaque protein plakophilin 1 (PKP1; band 6 protein). The affected individual was a compound heterozygote for null mutations on both alleles of the PKP1 gene. Both mutations occurred within the amino terminus of PKP1, the domain which normally binds the cytoskeletal keratin filament network to the cell membrane. Apart from its localization within desmosomal plaques, PKP1 may also be present within the cytoplasm and nucleus and has putative roles in signal transduction and regulation of gene activity. The clinicopathological observations in this patient demonstrate the relevance of PKP1 to desmosome formation, cutaneous cell-cell adhesion and epidermal development and demonstrate the specific manifestations of human functional knockout mutations in this gene.
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2/8. genotype-phenotype correlation in skin fragility-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome resulting from mutations in plakophilin 1.

    We report a 42-year-old Japanese man with an unusual autosomal recessive genodermatosis. The clinical features comprised normal skin at birth, loss of scalp hair at 3-months of age after a febrile illness, progressive nail dystrophy during infancy, palmoplantar keratoderma starting around the age of 18 years and trauma-induced skin fragility and blisters noted from the age of 20 years. skin biopsy of rubbed non-lesional skin revealed widening of spaces between adjacent keratinocytes from the suprabasal layer upwards. Electron microscopy demonstrated a reduced number of hypoplastic desmosomes. Immunohistochemical labeling showed a reduction in intercellular staining for the desmosome component plakophilin 1. mutation analysis revealed a homozygous intron 11 donor splice site mutation in the plakophilin 1 gene, 2021 1 G>A (GenBank no. Z34974). RT-PCR, using rna extracted from the skin biopsy, provided evidence for residual low levels of the full-length wild-type transcript (approximately 8%) as well as multiple other near full-length transcripts, one of which was in frame leading to deletion of 17 amino acids from the 9th arm-repeat unit of the plakophilin 1 tail domain. Thus, the molecular findings help explain the clinical features in the patient, who has a similar but milder phenotype to previously reported patients with skin fragility-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome associated with complete ablation of plakophilin 1 (OMIM 604536). This new 'mitis' phenotype provides further clinicopathological evidence for the role of plakophilin 1 in keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion and ectodermal development.
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3/8. Histopathological and ultrastructural study of ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome.

    ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS) (MIM604536) is a newly described autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin fragility and blistering, palmoplantar keratoderma, abnormal hair growth, nail dystrophy, and occasionally defective sweating. It results from mutations in the PKP1 gene encoding plakophilin 1 (PKP1), which is an important component of stratifying epithelial desmosomes and a nuclear component of many cell types. Our study was performed to further characterize the histopathology of EDSFS in different cutaneous sites with a special emphasis on the hypotrichosis and keratoderma. A total of 4 biopsies were obtained from 2 EDSFS female patients, aged 9 days to 4 years. The biopsies were taken from the blistering skin of the leg and trunk, the hyperkeratotic skin of the sole, and the hypotrichotic scalp. The observed histopathologic features included: widened intercellular spaces, suprabasal intraepidermal clefts and blisters with acantholytic keratinocytes, detachments of the upper epidermal layers due to disadhesion, varying degrees of dyskeratosis that were much more pronounced in the plantar hyperkeratotic skin, and increased number of catagen-telogen hair follicles. The electron-microscopic observations attributed the disadhesion and acantholysis to reduced numbers of small hypoplastic desmosomes, and the dyskeratosis to the detachment of intracellular keratin filaments from the desmosomes with perinuclear condensation, which might also underlie the plantar keratoderma. The hair follicle findings suggest disturbance in the hair cycle, which might be attributed to disturbed nuclear PKP1 function or result from aberrant desmosomal signaling.
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keywords = desmosomes
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4/8. Compound heterozygosity for new splice site mutations in the plakophilin 1 gene (PKP1) in a Chinese case of ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome.

    ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by skin fragility, nail dystrophy and hyperkeratosis of palms and soles. skin biopsy shows the loss of cell adhesion and the decrease of desmosomes in number and size. Mutations in PKP1 have been found to be the underlying cause of the syndrome. We report here a Chinese case of ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome. mutation analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for mutations in PKP1 of the proband. A new splice site mutation (c.1053 T>A c.1054 1 G>T) near the 3' end of exon 5 and at the donor end of intron 5 on one allele was transmitted from the proband's mother. Another new splice site mutation (c.1835-2 A>G) near the acceptor end of intron 10 originated from her father. The absence of the mutant mRNA and plakophilin 1 protein in the proband's skin may result from the mechanism of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay induced by premature stop codons in PKP1 transcripts due to the two splice site mutations.
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keywords = desmosomes
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5/8. Two novel TP63 mutations associated with the ankyloblepharon, ectodermal defects, and cleft lip and palate syndrome: a skin fragility phenotype.

    BACKGROUND: Ankyloblepharon, ectodermal defects, and cleft lip and palate (AEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the sterile alpha motif region of TP63, a homologue of the tumor suppressor TP53. Recent structure-function studies have identified complexities in the genotype-phenotype correlation of the p63 syndromes. OBSERVATIONS: We report 2 sporadic cases of AEC syndrome in infants. Both patients demonstrated skin erosions with prominent scalp involvement. Histologic studies demonstrated mild basal layer vacuolization and rare dyskeratotic keratinocytes, with evidence of both acantholysis and cytolysis at the blister edge. immunohistochemistry using anti-p63 monoclonal antibody demonstrated basal epidermal nuclear staining in both healthy control and patient tissue samples. Ultrastructural studies showed focal disruption of anchoring fibrils near the blister edge of one patient and normal desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and basement membrane zone in the nonblistered skin of the other patient. The dna analysis of each patient revealed 2 novel missense mutations in the TP63 gene that resulted in L514S and R555P amino acid substitutions within the sterile alpha motif region of the p63 protein. CONCLUSIONS: We report 2 novel TP63 mutations resulting in AEC syndrome. The R555P mutation is the most carboxy-terminal of all the reported AEC missense mutations of p63. The presence of skin fragility, manifested as erosive skin lesions in body areas in addition to the scalp, is postulated to be an important diagnostic feature of AEC syndrome.
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keywords = desmosomes
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6/8. ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome resulting from a new homozygous mutation, 888delC, in the desmosomal protein plakophilin 1.

    We report an unusual case of an inherited disorder of the desmosomal protein plakophilin 1, resulting in ectodermal dysplasia-skin fragility syndrome. The affected 6-year-old boy had red skin at birth and subsequently developed skin fragility, progressive plantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and alopecia. skin biopsy revealed widening of intercellular spaces in the epidermis and a reduced number of small, poorly formed desmosomes. mutation analysis of the plakophilin 1 gene PKP1 revealed a homozygous deletion of C at nucleotide 888 within exon 5. This mutation differs from the PKP1 gene pathology reported in 8 previously published individuals with this rare genodermatosis. However, all cases show similar clinical features, highlighting the importance of functional plakophilin 1 in maintaining desmosomal adhesion in skin, as well as the role of this protein in aspects of ectodermal development.
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keywords = desmosomes
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7/8. Mutations in the plakophilin 1 gene result in ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome.

    Members of the armadillo protein gene family, which includes plakoglobin and beta-catenin, have important functions in cytoskeleton/cell membrane interactions. These proteins may act as linker molecules at adherens junctions and desmosomes at the plasma membrane; in addition, they may have pivotal roles in signal transduction pathways and significant effects on cell behaviour during development. Here, we describe the first human mutations in one of these dual function proteins, plakophilin 1 (band-6 protein; refs 8-10). The affected individual has a complete absence of immunostaining for plakophilin 1 in the skin and is a compound heterozygote for autosomal-recessively inherited premature termination codons of translation on both alleles of the plakophilin 1 gene (PKP1). Clinically, there are features of both cutaneous fragility and congenital ectodermal dysplasia affecting skin, hair and nails. There is no evidence of significant abnormalities in other epithelia or tissues. Desmosomes in the skin are small and poorly formed with widening of keratinocyte intercellular spaces and perturbed desmosome/keratin intermediate filament interactions. The molecular findings and clinical observations in this patient attest to the dual importance of plakophilin 1 in both cutaneous cell-call adhesion and epidermal morphogenesis.
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keywords = desmosomes
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8/8. epidermolysis bullosa, pyloric atresia, aplasia cutis congenita: histopathological delineation of an autosomal recessive disease.

    The simultaneous appearance of epidermolysis bullosa and pyloric atresia (EB-PA) is recognized as an autosomal recessive disease; however, the coappearance of EB-PA and aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) has not been delineated as a defined entity. The aim of this study was to analyze clinically and histopathologically eight cases with EB-PA-ACC belonging to an extended Bedouin family to gain insight into the cause and pathophysiology of the disease. All affected infants were found to have mixed skin lesions, including blisters and patchy lack of skin. Almost all of them (seven of eight) also had intestinal obstructions, especially pyloric atresia or stenosis. skin lesions involved all skin layers with marked dystrophic changes. The intestinal obstruction was the result of overproliferation of connective tissue. In view of the clinical and histopathological findings, it is postulated that the condition is caused by an autosomal recessive gene affecting the integrity of the basement membrane and hemidesmosomes and the control of the normal process of fibrosis occurring during the course of wound healing. The sequence of events is initiated by the separation of the epidermis or the intestinal mucosal layer. Then, inflammatory reaction takes place and proceeds with massive fibrosis penetrating the deep layers and causing damage of skin and obstruction of the intestinal lumen. In view of the recent findings regarding the molecular basis of EB-PA, the described phenotype may result from a mutation in one of the integrin genes.
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keywords = desmosomes
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