Cases reported "Edema"

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1/145. Idiopathic oedema with increased cytokine production: a pathogenetic link?

    We describe four patients with idiopathic oedema and elevated cytokines. All patients shared increased serum concentrations of soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R). In three patients tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were transiently elevated. There was no evidence for an underlying disease. Based on experimental and clinical data it is hypothesized that oedema formation in our patients is the consequence of cytokine induced alteration of endothelial cells.
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2/145. Successful use of alternate waste nitrogen agents and hemodialysis in a patient with hyperammonemic coma after heart-lung transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Lethal hyperammonemic coma has been reported in 2 adults after lung transplantation. It was associated with a massive elevation of brain glutamine levels, while plasma glutamine levels were normal or only slightly elevated. In liver tissue, glutamine synthetase activity was markedly reduced, and the histologic findings resembled those of reye syndrome. The adequacy of therapy commonly used for inherited disorders of the urea cycle has not been adequately evaluated in patients with this form of secondary hyperammonemia. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hemodialysis, in conjunction with intravenous sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, and arginine hydrochloride therapy, would be efficacious in a patient with hyperammonemic coma after solid-organ transplantation. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: A children's hospital. PATIENT: A 41-year-old woman with congenital heart disease developed a hyperammonemic coma with brain edema 19 days after undergoing a combined heart and lung transplantation. methods: Ammonium was measured in plasma. amino acids were quantitated in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by column chromatography. The effectiveness of therapy was assessed by measuring plasma ammonium levels and intracranial pressure and performing sequential neurological examinations. RESULTS: The patient had the anomalous combination of increased cerebrospinal fluid and decreased plasma glutamine levels. To our knowledge, she is the first patient with this complication after solid-organ transplantation to survive after combined therapy with sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, arginine hydrochloride, and hemodialysis. Complications of the acute coma included focal motor seizures, which were controlled with carbamazepine, and difficulty with short-term memory. CONCLUSIONS: The aggressive use of hemodialysis in conjunction with intravenous sodium phenylacetate, sodium benzoate, and arginine hydrochloride therapy may allow survival in patients after solid-organ transplantation. An acute acquired derangement in extra-central nervous system glutamine metabolism may play a role in the production of hyperammonemia in this illness that resembles reye syndrome, and, as in other hyperammonemic disorders, the duration and degree of elevation of brain glutamine levels may be the important determining factors in responsiveness to therapy.
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3/145. smith-lemli-opitz syndrome presenting with persisting nuchal oedema and non-immune hydrops.

    smith-lemli-opitz syndrome (SLO) is a recognized clinical entity with distinctive anomalies. Recently it has been shown that a specific defect in cholesterol metabolism, 7-dehydroxycholesterol reductase deficiency, causes the multiple abnormalities seen in SLO. There have been two reports of first-trimester nuchal translucency associated with SLO. We report two cases of SLO in the third trimester, one with persisting nuchal oedema and the other presenting with hydrops. These findings may explain a proportion of the perinatal loss associated with this syndrome.
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4/145. The cystic fibrosis conductance regulator gene exon sequence is normal in a patient with edematous eosinophilic nasal polyps.

    nasal polyps are the most common mass lesions found in the nose and their etiology is unknown. nasal polyps from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are histologically distinct from nasal polyps from patients without CF. It has been suggested that a mutation (G551D) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene may play a role in nasal polyp formation in patients without CF. To investigate the possibility that this or other CFTR gene exon mutations are required for nasal polyp formation, the CFTR gene exons were sequenced from peripheral blood dna derived from an adult patient with edematous eosinophilic nasal polyps and no personal or family history of CF. No mutations or deletions were identified in any of the CFTR exons. A single polymorphism (A or G) was found in exon 10, base pair 1540, amino acid 470. This polymorphism was detected in 11 of 16 subjects (69%) with edematous eosinophilic nasal polyps and 10 of 21 normal subjects (48%) without nasal polyps and was not statistically significant (p = 0.316). These results demonstrate that mutations of the CFTR coding region are not a prerequisite for the formation of edematous eosinophilic nasal polyps.
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5/145. Production of anterior segment ischemia.

    Anterior segment ischemia changes can occur without detachment of any muscles. The most common cause of such ischemic changes of the anterior segment is the removal of too many rectus muscles in one operation. Twenty dog eyes and eight monkey eyes were subjected to the disinsertion and detachment of various combinations of extraocular muscles. They were sacrificed at intervals from 30 to 90 days. During the observation period, they were observed for gross and slit lamp changes. The enucleated eyes were studied microscopically for signs of ischemic and necrotic changes. Two patients who were studied, observed, and treated for anterior segment ischemia following muscle surgery are described. The changes which occur after muscle surgery are extensive and include corneal edema, cataract, chemosis, corneal changes, decreases in intraocular pressure, decreases in outflow or glaucoma and frank necrosis. The variables which lead to this reaction is described in detail. Also, some unanswered queries, such as the duration of the reaction and the time interval of the reaction after multiple muscle surgeries, are discussed.
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6/145. Conjunctival edema and alopecia of the external third of the eyebrows in a patient with meige syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient with meige syndrome in whom we observed the coexistence of hereditary lymphedema of the lower legs, conjunctival edema and alopecia of the lateral third of the eyebrows. methods: Case report. RESULTS: Histological examination of the conjunctival and skin specimens showed dermal edema and a slight reduction in the number of severely ectatic lymphatics in the reticular dermis. The vessel were identified as lymphatics on the basis of immunohistochemical evidence of discontinuity and/or absence of basement membrane. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and histological findings suggest that the etiopathogenesis of the edema in meige syndrome is related to a structural ectatic defect of lymphatics. This anomaly seems to involve both skin and other sites, such as conjunctival mucosa.
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7/145. Solid facial edema in a patient with rosacea.

    We report a 53-year old man with symmetrical nonpitting edema, conjunctivitis, and acneiform eruptions on the face. Histopathological examination showed perifollicular lymphohistiocytic infiltration and telangiectasias in the upper dermis. Loosely aggregated non-caseating granulomas were scattered through the dermis; some of them were seen in the perifollicular regions. The patient was treated with fleroxacin (100 mg/day, orally) for two weeks with a marked reduction of both solid facial edema and periorbital edema.
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8/145. Low blood glucose levels and other complications during growth hormone supplementation in sepsis.

    blood glucose levels in the high normal range or even moderate hyperglycemia is the expected profile in septic postoperative patients receiving high-calorie enteral alimentation. The addition of growth hormone as an anabolic agent should additionally reinforce this tendency. In a cancer patient undergoing partial gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and suffering from postoperative subphrenic abscess and prolonged sepsis, tube feeding (38.3 kcal/kg/day) and growth hormone (0.17 IU/kg/day) were simultaneously administered for 25 days. blood glucose levels were in the lower limits of the normal range before growth hormone introduction, and continued with a similar tendency during most of the therapeutic period. Two additional complications, namely heart arrest and peripheral edema, were documented during the same period. It is concluded that sepsis was the most likely mechanism for low glucose values, and that high-calorie enteral diet and growth hormone supplementation did not prevent that result. It is uncertain whether heart arrest was due to the drug, but its association with peripheral edema is well documented in clinical series.
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9/145. Acute glomerulonephritis after human parvovirus B19 infection.

    We evaluated clinical and histological characteristics of four adult patients who presented with acute glomerulonephritic syndrome with serological confirmation of recent HPB19 infection. All patients had generalized edema with urinary abnormalities. body weight gain ranged from 3 to 10 kg. Three of the patients had contact with erythema infectiosum simultaneously with or within 10 days before development of flu-like symptoms. Two patients had an erythematous rash, and one patient had lower-extremity purpura. Joint pain was present in three of the patients. All patients had proteinuria and hematuria. Renal functions were normal except in one patient who had a serum creatinine of 3.2 mg/dL. Three of the patients had hypocomplementemia. All renal biopsy specimens were characterized by glomerular leukocyte infiltration and endothelial cell swelling. Mesangiolysis was seen in three of the patients. C3 was deposited in a coarse granular pattern along the capillary walls in all cases. Electron microscopic examination showed marked expansion of the subendothelial space of glomerular capillaries in all patients. Subendothelial electron-dense deposits were present in all patients. Immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal anti-HPB19 antibody showed that one of the four patients had positive staining in the glomeruli. dna extracted from renal biopsy specimens contained HPB19 dna, as shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in all patients. PCR amplification of the renal dna generated a 104-bp product, which hybridized to an HPB19-specific probe. No control group subjects contained HPB19 dna as determined by PCR. This circumstantial evidence indicates that HPB19 infection may be one of the causes of acute glomerulonephritis in normal individuals.
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10/145. granular cell tumor of the hypopharynx treated by endoscopic CO(2) laser excision: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: granular cell tumor (GCT), or Abrikossoff's tumor, is an unusual lesion probably arising from schwann cells. It is frequently found in the head and neck region, where the tongue is the most commonly affected site. Involvement of the hypopharynx is exceedingly rare because, to the best of our knowledge, only four cases have been reported in the literature. methods: We describe hypopharyngeal GCT in two women aged 29 and 52 years, respectively. RESULTS: In the first patient, preoperative diagnostic examination, including endoscopy, CT, and MRI scan, was suggestive of a benign lesion arising from the posterior wall of the hypopharynx. In the second patient, a previous biopsy of the postcricoid area performed elsewhere suggested a diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, and CT scan staged the lesion as T1 N0. In both cases, treatment included surgical excision under microlaryngoscopy with CO(2) laser. The histopathologic study of the specimens, supported by immunohistochemical techniques, determined the lesions to be a GCT. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patients were discharged 12 and 2 days after surgery, respectively. Both patients were asymptomatic without evidence of recurrence when last seen 2 years and 4 months after surgery, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: GCT should be included in the differential diagnosis of submucosal hypopharyngeal lesions. endoscopy and radiologic imaging do not display any typical finding suggestive of the diagnosis, which can be based only on histologic findings. Resection of the tumor, when technically feasible, should be performed under microlaryngoscopy with the CO(2) laser, which makes it possible to work in a bloodless field with minimal thermal damage and reduction of scarring and postoperative edema.
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