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1/10. Maternal syndrome associated with hydrops fetalis: case report.

    A case of maternal fluid retention syndrome associated with fetal hydrops due to rhesus isoimmunisation is reported. The aetiology and clinical features are discussed. Prophylactic anti-Rh immunoglobin should reduce the incidence of such cases in the future.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rhesus
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2/10. An unusual case of rhesus isoimmunization.

    A case of rhesus isoimmunization with spontaneous improvement in severity of erythroblastosis with advancing parity is presented. The isoimmunized pregnant woman after having 3 perinatal deaths all due to severe hydrops fetalis, subsequently delivered 2 Rh-positive surviving infants. In her last pregnancy, the timing of delivery was indicated by cessation of fetal movements, followed by a sinusoidal fetal heart rate pattern. The newborn, needing 5 exchanging blood transfusions, subsequently did well.
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ranking = 426.96499631022
keywords = isoimmunization, rhesus
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3/10. Percutaneous umbilical transfusion in severe rhesus isoimmunization: resolution of fetal hydrops.

    The rhesus-sensitized fetus with the worst prognosis is one with early onset of hydropic changes. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling now enables access to the fetal circulation and thereby allows more precise evaluation of fetal anemia and direct intravascular transfusion. A variation of this technique was used in three pregnancies complicated by fetal pericardial effusion, scalp edema, and abdominal ascites before 26 weeks' gestation. Twelve ultrasound-guided percutaneous transfusions of 30 to 85 ml packed red blood cells were administered into the umbilical cord at its placental insertion. In each fetus the hydropic changes completely resolved and pregnancy outcome was successful. Neither adjunctive therapy with digoxin or Lasix nor exchange transfusions were used. Percutaneous umbilical transfusions appear to have the potential to improve the prognosis for the severely isoimmunized fetus.
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ranking = 342.57199704817
keywords = isoimmunization, rhesus
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4/10. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis may be associated with an elevated delta OD450 in the amniotic fluid.

    Nonimmune hydrops fetalis may be associated with an elevated amniotic fluid delta OD450. Cases of I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II), lethal multiple pterygium syndrome, and alpha-thalassemia are presented, each associated with nonimmune hydrops fetalis and an elevated delta OD450. An elevated delta OD450 does not always indicate isoimmunization, and may be due to increased red blood cell turnover for a variety of reasons associated with nonimmune hydrops fetalis.
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ranking = 84.392999262044
keywords = isoimmunization
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5/10. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis in association with hemangioma of the umbilical cord.

    Nonimmune hydrops fetalis is becoming the predominant form of fetal hydrops due to the declining frequency of rh isoimmunization. Reported is the preterm delivery of a hydropic twin with umbilical cord and cutaneous hemangiomata. The unusual umbilical angiomatous malformation was associated with marked edema of the cord. This produced an ultrasonographic abnormality detected antenatally as a multicystic mass in close approximation to the fetal abdomen. The hydropic twin responded to aggressive neonatal management. It appears that hemangiomata of the umbilical cord may be causally related to fetal hydrops and may represent another entry in the differential diagnosis of this disorder.
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ranking = 84.392999262044
keywords = isoimmunization
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6/10. Successful ultrasound-guided intravascular transfusion in severe fetal anemia without blood group incompability.

    A 26-year-old patient with chronic acquired pure red cell aplasia had given birth to two infants, both of which died from fetal hydrops and anemia. In her third pregnancy the fetus was diagnosed as being hydropic and anemic in the 24th gestational week. No blood group incompability could be demonstrated. Because of the low gestational age and presence of fetal ascites, intraperitoneal fetal blood transfusion was considered to be without effect, and three fetal intravascular transfusions were therefore performed in the 24th, 26th and 28th gestational weeks. The infant born in the 30th week, is in good health with a normal blood picture, 6 months later. Hydrops and fetal anemia has never been described as a complication of pregnancy in a patient with pure red cell aplasia and it is the first time that intrauterine intravascular fetal transfusion has been used other than for rhesus indication.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rhesus
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7/10. Non immune hydrops fetalis.

    With the decline in the frequency of rhesus isoimmunisation, hydrops fetalis secondary to other factors is becoming increasingly recognised. We describe a case in association with chorioangioma of the placenta. The causes of non immune hydrops are reviewed and the problems of management discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rhesus
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8/10. Non-immunological hydrops fetalis. a case report.

    A case of hydrops fetalis which was not due to isoimmunization is presented. The condition was diagnosed antenatally by means of ultrasonography and the infant was delivered at 32 weeks' gestation. He required intensive care, but survived and is well at 18 months of age. The causation, diagnosis and management of this problem are discussed.
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ranking = 84.392999262044
keywords = isoimmunization
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9/10. Recognition of the hydropic fetus by gray scale ultrasound.

    The use of gray scale B mode provides more effective visualization for sonographic evaluation of fetal ascities. Two cases of severely Rh isoimmunized fetuses with hydrops and one fetus with hydrops secondary to chylous ascites are presented to show the ultrasonic features of diagnosis of fetal edema and ascities. Thus, ultrasonic evaluation in known cases of rh isoimmunization or diabetes provides additional information on the status of the fetus in utero and rapid recognition of fetal hydrops. This additional information aids in the management of the pregnancy and in the determination of the time of delivery.
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ranking = 84.392999262044
keywords = isoimmunization
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10/10. Clinical biological features of Ballantyne syndrome and the role of placental hydrops.

    Ballantyne syndrome was first described in association with severe hydrops fetalis caused by rhesus isoimmunization, and lately, in association with diverse etiologies of nonimmunological severe fetal hydrops. This report is a case of typical Ballantyne syndrome in association with lethal hydrops fetalis caused by Ebstein's anomaly. It is likely that any severe fetal hydrops with massive placental hydrops may produce Ballantyne syndrome. hemodilution could be the main biological feature, differentiating Ballantyne syndrome from usual preeclamptic syndromes. Pathophysiological hypotheses are discussed.
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ranking = 85.392999262044
keywords = isoimmunization, rhesus
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