Cases reported "Embolism, Fat"

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1/47. Pulmonary bone marrow embolism in sickle cell disease.

    We report an unusual lethal complication of sickle cell anemia. The patient was admitted with a diagnosis of acute chest syndrome and died shortly after that of respiratory failure. autopsy revealed numerous deposits of bone marrow hematopoietic tissue occluding the microvascular circulation of the lung. Many causes of acute chest syndrome in sickle cell anemia have been identified, including bone marrow infarction leading to embolism of bone marrow fat. However, the release of bone marrow hematopoietic tissue leading to pulmonary vascular occlusion is not generally recognized premortem by treating physicians.
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2/47. Fat embolism syndrome in a case of abdominal lipectomy with liposuction.

    Fat embolism syndrome is reported in a patient who underwent abdominoplasty and suction lipectomy for body contouring. Within 48 hours after surgery, she experienced adult respiratory distress syndrome, secondary to fat embolism syndrome. This was proven on bronchoscopy by evidence of fat laden macrophages. Aggressive respiratory support over 12 days resulted in patient survival.
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3/47. Unusual finding after contrast injection of a solitary bone cyst. A case report.

    Injection of radiopaque contrast into a solitary bone cyst (SBC) prior to methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) injection has been previously reported. We report an unusual finding during the injection of radiopaque contrast in the treatment of one case of SBC of the femur: a bicameral appearance of the cyst was observed; no filling of the proximal cavity occurred and immediate perfusion of the femoral vein with contrast was noted. In cases of SBC such as this one, percutaneous autologous marrow or corticosteroid injection may fail to be effective. Furthermore there exists the potential risk of fat embolus secondary to bone marrow injection. Based on these findings in the case reported, we suggest that contrast injection should be performed prior to bone marrow or corticosteroid injection in order to evaluate both the venous drainage of the cyst and its degree of loculation.
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4/47. Transcranial doppler detection of fat emboli.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The fat embolism syndrome (FES) is characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of pulmonary and neurological symptoms as well as skin and mucosal petechiae in the setting of long-bone fractures or their surgical repair. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood, and effective treatments are lacking. We present 5 patients with long-bone fractures in whom in vivo microembolism was detected by transcranial Doppler. methods: Five patients with long-bone fractures were monitored with transcranial Doppler for microembolic signals (MESs) after trauma. Two patients also had intraoperative monitoring. A TC-2020 instrument equipped with MES detection software was used. Detected signals were saved for subsequent review. Selected signals satisfied criteria defined previously and were categorized as large or small. RESULTS: Cerebral microembolism was detected in all 5 patients and was transient, resolving within 4 days of injury. Intraoperative monitoring revealed an increase in MESs during intramedullary nail insertion. The characteristics of MESs after injury varied among patients, with large signals being more frequent in the only patient with a patent foramen ovale. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral microembolism after long-bone fractures can be detected in vivo and monitored over time. These findings may have potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
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5/47. Prolonged coma due to cerebral fat embolism: report of two cases.

    Fat embolism syndrome remains a rare, but potentially life threatening complication of long bone fractures. The true incidence is difficult to assess as many cases remain undiagnosed. Cerebral involvement varies from confusion to encephalopathy with coma and seizures. Clinical symptoms and computed tomography are not always diagnostic, while magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive in the detection of a suspected brain embolism. Two cases of post-traumatic cerebral fat embolism, manifested by prolonged coma and diffuse cerebral oedema, are presented. The clinical course of the disease as well as the intensive care unit management are discussed.
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6/47. Fatal fat embolism syndrome: a case report.

    Fat embolism syndrome is a dire complication of long bone trauma. It is usually associated with neurological, hematological and respiratory involvement, the latter being the major cause of death. We present a case of severe fat embolism syndrome occurring 3 hours after a long bone injury, leading to permanent vegetative state and death without any respiratory signs. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Clinical presentation of the puzzling fat embolism syndrome and diagnostic tests in suspected fat embolism syndrome are reviewed.
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7/47. Cerebral embolization presenting as delayed, severe obtundation in the postanesthesia care unit after total hip arthroplasty.

    Catastrophic neurologic events occur rarely postoperatively and must be diagnosed quickly. A 63-year-old woman who had undergone uneventful total hip arthroplasty experienced obtundation after admission to the postanesthesia care unit. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple lesions consistent with ischemia or infarction, and fat cerebral embolism was diagnosed. We describe the numerous complications that may occur in patients in the postanesthesia care unit and review the differential diagnosis of altered mental status in such patients. Paradoxical cerebral fat embolization must be considered in the differential diagnosis of altered mental status after pelvic or long bone fracture or lower extremity major joint replacement, and this condition may occur despite normal pulmonary function and no patent foramen ovale or right-to-left intracardiac shunt. magnetic resonance imaging with T2-weighted sequences is the cranial imaging study of choice for early evaluation of patients with sudden multifocal neurologic deficits and suspected fat embolism syndrome.
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8/47. Sudden death from pelvic hemorrhage after bilateral central fracture dislocations of the hip due to an epileptic seizure.

    Fracture and dislocation of major joints may be caused by the forceful tonic muscular contractions of seizure activity. A 77-year-old man who was found dead in bed with no sign of external trauma had bilateral central fracture dislocations of the femoral head through the acetabular floor with fatal pelvic hemorrhage and extensive pulmonary fat and bone marrow embolism. He had epilepsy, but the last seizure was 6 years earlier, and he had long discontinued medication. The fractures were attributed to a new unwitnessed seizure. This is the twentieth case of central fracture dislocation of the hip since 1970, when better anesthesia eliminated convulsive therapy-induced fractures. The authors review these 20 cases. seizures followed inflammation, infarction or neoplasia of the brain, eclampsia, metabolic or iatrogenic causes, or epilepsy (6 cases, 2 of which had no prior seizures for 5 years). There were 11 men (mean age, 64 years) and 9 women (mean age, 47 years). Fractures were unilateral in 13 and bilateral in 7. Additional fractures (in vertebrae, shoulders, or femur) were present in eight. Only eight had prior bone disease. Local symptoms led to diagnosis in most, but two were identified incidentally on imaging. The current patient was the only one to die suddenly, but six other patients presented with shock and three died (one of whom had injuries that led to a suspicion of manslaughter). Central fracture-dislocation of the hip is a rare and little known consequence of seizures, with strong potential for misdiagnosis and lethal complications.
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9/47. Cerebral fat embolism after a nondisplaced tibial fracture: case report.

    Fat embolism syndrome has been observed after traumatic or nontraumatic events. In traumatic cases, fat embolism syndrome is known to occur in patients with a fracture of a long bone. The case of a patient with a cerebral fat embolism associated with a nondisplaced fracture of the tibial shaft is reported.
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10/47. Paradoxical fat embolism after intramedullary rodding: a case report.

    Following intramedullary rodding of two long-bone fractures, a twenty-year-old woman developed the clinical picture of fat embolism syndrome with severe neurological involvement. Corroborating evidence suggested paradoxical embolization of fat as the precipitating cause of this neurologic deterioration. The suspected pathophysiology of this event is discussed.
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