Cases reported "Embolism"

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1/102. Fatal late multiple emboli after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Case report.

    BACKGROUND: The short term experience of endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) seems promising but long term randomised data are lacking. Consequently, cases treated by endovascular procedures need to be closely followed for potential risks and benefits. CASE REPORT: A 70 year-old mildly hypertensive male without previous or present arteriosclerotic, pulmonary, or urological manifestations was subjected to endovascular treatment after his mass-screening diagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysm had expanded to above 5 cm in diameter, the aneurysm having been found by CT-scanning and arteriography to be endovascularly treatable. A Vanguard bifurcated aortic stent graft was implanted under epidural/spinal anaesthesia and covered by cephalosporine and heparin (8000 IE) protection. Apart from treatment of a groin haematoma and stenosis of the left superficial femoral artery, the postoperative period presented no problems. A few days before the monthly follow-up visit, the patient developed uraemia, gangrene of one foot and dyspnoea. blood glucose and LDH was elevated. Deterioration led to death a month and a half after stent implantation. autopsy showed extraordinary large, extensive soft, brown vegetations in the lower part of the thoracic aorta above the properly infrarenally-placed stent. Microscopic examination revealed multiple microemboli in the liver, spleen, pancreas, intestines, testes, and especially the kidneys. DISCUSSION: Early death from microemboli after aortic stent implantation has been reported. However, the present case developed fatal multiple microemboli so late that they could not have originated from the excluded mural thrombus. The sudden death of an otherwise healthy man of extensive microemboli is difficult to explain. The stent application may have altered the proximal flow and wall movements disposing to microemboli in the case of vegetations.
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2/102. common bile duct blood clot: an unusual cause of ductal filling defects for calculi.

    We report a case of obstructive jaundice caused by a blood clot in the common bile duct in a 75-year-old man with cirrhosis. Five years prior to his admission, he had undergone a left hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. At the present admission, he appeared icteric, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed filling defects in the common bile duct. Choledochotomy was therefore performed for possible common duct stones, and exploration of the duct showed blood clot casts filling the duct. The casts were easily removed, and the patient's postoperative course was uneventful. However, he developed ascites and jaundice 1 month later and died of liver failure approximately 3 months after undergoing the choledochotomy. autopsy revealed hemorrhagic necrosis in the proximal intrahepatic duct of the posterior segment, which was considered to be the cause of the observed hemobilia, as well as the blood clot in the common bile duct at surgery. We report this rare case and discuss the cause of hemobilia.
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3/102. Intraoperative acute occlusion of aortic bifurcation during extracorporeal circulation.

    A 36-year-old male patient showed a significant decrease of arterial pressure in the lower extremities during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with extracorporeal circulation (ECC). arterial pressure measured in the femoral artery fell to 10-20 mmHg at the end of ECC, whereas in the upper extremities arterial pressure levels were normal. At the end of the surgery a complete ischemia of both lower extremities was observed. We suspected Leriche's syndrome and performed a successful aortic embolectomy through bilateral femoral arteriotomies immediately. An insufficient anticoagulation could be excluded by prolonged "activated clotting time" (ACT), therefore we presumed that the source of embolus was a small aneurysm of the left ventricle. The shape and superficial structure of the extracted embolus, which was partly covered with endocardium, confirmed our suspicion. No complications occurred throughout the postoperative period. On the 10th postoperative day, the patient left our department for postoperative rehabilitation with a normal perfusion of the lower extremities.
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ranking = 7
keywords = operative
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4/102. Peripheral arterial embolization: Doppler ultrasound scan diagnosis.

    Use of intraoperative monitoring with transcranial Doppler scanning during carotid endarterectomy has enabled identification of embolus signals in the ultrasound spectrum. Extension of this technique to preoperative screening has enabled identification of actively embolizing lesions and correlation with neurologic deficits. We report embolus signals in the peripheral circulation before operation, which aided diagnosis and decision to operate. The patient had been transferred from another institution after multiple revascularization procedures, including posterior tibial artery thrombectomy. Angiography performed on arrival at our institution confirmed an open bypass graft, although a small indentation was noted at the site of the previous posterior tibial artery thrombectomy. Runoff was intact to the plantar arch where there was attenuation of that vessel and occlusion of most digital branches. Duplex monitoring revealed no embolic signals in the graft or in the posterior tibial artery proximal to the previous arteriotomy. Distal to this site, embolic signals were detected. At the time of operation, a large platelet thrombus was identified at the site of the previous arteriotomy, and platelet thrombus was obtained from the plantar artery. It is concluded that doppler ultrasound scanning enables detection of peripheral embolization and the identification and location of lesions with such embolic activity. Diagnostic accuracy may be improved when there is clinical suspicion of embolization, enabling better patient selection for surgical procedures. This report provides the first clinicopathologic characterization of the emboli detected.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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5/102. Insidious symptomatology and misleading physical findings in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. A case report.

    A patient presented with an ischemic right forefoot. She suffered rest pain but had relief on walking and on flexing her leg. Popliteal and pedal pulses were palpable. The underlying condition was popliteal artery entrapment. Compression of the popliteal artery occurred with extension of the knee and additional contraction of the gastrocnemius muscles only and was released with flexion. Distal embolizations into all three lower leg arteries had caused acute ischemia. As the emboli had travelled through both tibial vessels very distally pedal pulses were found to be normal. Treatment was operatively by resection of a tiny lateral portion of the medial gastrocnemic tendon which crossed the artery dorsally as the vessel pierced the tendon.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/102. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus endocarditis with septic embolism of popliteal artery: a case report.

    A 20-year-old man presented with a 14-day course of fever. physical examination showed petechiae of the conjunctivae, Janeway lesions on both hands, a grade III/VI systolic murmur over the apex, pulseless dorsal pedal artery and posterior tibial artery of the right leg, and a pale right foot. Femoral arteriogram of the right leg revealed total occlusion of the popliteal artery with collateral circulation of the posterior tibial artery. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed trace mitral regurgitation. embolectomy of the right popliteal artery was done, and penicillin and gentamicin treatment was administered. However, postoperative fever developed intermittently. Transesophageal echocardiogram disclosed vegetation over the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from all three cultures of blood drawn at admission and from the septic embolus during operation. He had neither evidence of underlying heart disease, nor history of intravenous drug abuse or hospitalization. Exploratory cardiotomy with removal of vegetation on the mitral valve was performed followed by a 4-week treatment with intravenous vancomycin. After discharge, he was well at 2-year follow-up.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/102. hearing loss after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    hearing loss (HL) is a rare complication following cardiac surgery with extracorporal circulation (CSWEC) or other non-otologic surgery under general anesthesia, as is HL caused by loss of cerebrospinal fluid during neurosurgery or spinal anesthesia. The incidence of HL after CSWEC is not known since preoperative hearing testing is not commonly done and a perioperative HL may occur unnoticed. We present four cases of profound sensorineural hearing loss following CSWEC for coronary artery bypass or cardiac valve surgery. The hearing loss was noticed immediately on waking from anesthesia in three of the patients, whereas the fourth patient noticed decreased hearing during the first postoperative week. In all patients audiological investigation suggested a cochlear etiology of the HL. The possible mechanisms for HL are discussed. HL after CSWEC is most likely caused by a microembolism generated by atheromatous material.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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8/102. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: management of distal embolization by intra-arterial fibrinolytics.

    We report a case of hypothenar hammer syndrome. The ulnar artery aneurysm was resected and a complete thrombectomy of the superficial palmar arch, the common digital and the proximal part of the collateral digital arteries was carried out. The arterial defect of the ulnar artery was repaired by a vein graft. Post-operatively, no clinical improvement was observed on the vascularisation of the second and third fingers. The arteriogram confirmed the presence of arterial obstruction on the distal part of the digital collateral arteries of this two fingers. The finger pulp started to show areas of skin gangrene and in view of the risk of finger necrosis, we decided to use fibrinolytics. This embolic events was dissolved by continuous fibrinolytic and anticoagulant intra-arterial infusion. The treatment was maintained for ten days restoring a normal digital vascularisation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/102. lower extremity paraparesis or paraplegia subsequent to endovascular management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    lower extremity paraplegia or paraparesis is an extremely rare event after operative repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAS). We report two such cases that occurred after endovascular repair or attempted endovascular repair of routine AAAS. To our knowledge, these are the first two cases reported specifically in the literature. These cases may have significant implications with regard to the endovascular management of AAAS, because atheroembolization to the spinal cord appears to be the underlying cause.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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10/102. Atheromatous plaque in the distal aortic arch creating the potential for cerebral embolism during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    The present study evaluated the risk in cardiac patients of rupture of a plaque by a jet stream from the arch cannula. The entire thoracic aorta and cardiac function were routinely monitored by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in 88 adult patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. The changes in the atheromatous plaque in the distal aortic arch were observed before and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the 88 patients, 13 were found to have preoperative atheromatous plaque at the distal aortic arch and 8 (61.5%) of them suffered plaque rupture caused by jet stream from the arch cannula. Only 1 patient experienced apparent embolic episodes manifesting as cerebral and left leg embolisms; the remaining 7 had no clinical embolic symptoms. In order to prevent atheroembolic events, attention should be paid not only to the ascending aorta, but also to the distal arch and in this regard TEE is useful for detecting atheromatous changes of the aorta.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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