Cases reported "Emergencies"

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1/155. Spontaneous bladder rupture: rare cause of peritonitis.

    Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder is an uncommon, but important, cause of generalized peritonitis. It is a surgical emergency which may be rapidly fatal if diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Bladder disease or obstruction, coupled with a sudden increase in intra-abdominal pressure usually accounts for the rupture. Characteristic symptoms are acute lower abdominal pain followed by generalized peritonitis. In most cases, the rupture is intra-peritoneal.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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2/155. intussusception in infants: an emergency in diagnosis and treatment.

    intussusception is an important cause of intestinal obstruction and bowel necrosis in infants under 2 years. Most frequently the ileocaecal junction is involved. Various aetiologic factors, such as Meckel's diverticulum and lymphoid hyperplasia have been identified. Hydrostatic reduction of the intussusception should be attempted, but delay in diagnosis frequently leads to surgical intervention, because of failing reduction. We report a case of a 4-month-old boy whose ileocaecal junction was intussuscepted into the rectum, and therefore could be palpated by rectal examination. Unsuccessful hydrostatic reduction and bowel necrosis because of delay in diagnosis, made surgical intervention necessary. A terminal ileostomy was performed. A second case report considers a 10-month-old boy whose ileocaecal junction was intussuscepted into the colon sigmoideum. Because there was no delay in diagnosis, this intussusception could be reduced hydrostatically. The procedure however was difficult because of a dolichosigmoideum. Recent literature is also reviewed.
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keywords = obstruction
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3/155. Use of adrenal vein conduit for splenorenal shunts: a case report.

    We report a case with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO), who presented with recurrent bleeding following a previous devascularization procedure and needed an emergency distal spleno-renal shunt (DSRS). Due to technical difficulty because of previous scarring, the adrenal vein was used as a conduit between the splenic vein and renal vein. The shunt's patent and the patient has been bleed-free for 2 years.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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4/155. Intubating laryngeal mask and rapid sequence induction in patients with cervical spine injury.

    The Intubating Laryngeal Mask (FastrachTM), a modified conventional laryngeal mask airway, and its prototype cuffed silicone tube, continue to be an appropriate intubating tool in combination with fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the emergency situation. This is an account of two patients with suspected cervical spine fracture admitted to our emergency room in a haemodynamically unstable condition and requiring a rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, in whom we successfully applied this newly developed intubating device for the first time. Provided that there are no intubation difficulties, direct laryngoscopy is still the fastest method of securing an airway; however, this procedure leads to an extension of the cervical spine, which may be hazardous in the case of a cervical spine injury. intubation by means of the Intubating Laryngeal Mask avoids dangerous hyperextension of the occipito-atlanto-axial complex, a fact that we were able to verify by lateral cervical spine fluoroscopy during intubation.
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ranking = 3.4586919227588
keywords = airway
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5/155. Traumatic fracture of the hyoid bone: three case presentations of cardiorespiratory compromise secondary to missed diagnosis.

    hyoid bone fractures secondary to blunt trauma other than strangulation are rare (ML Bagnoli et al., J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1988; 46: 326-8), accounting for only 0.002 per cent of all fractures. The world literature reports only 21 cases. Surgical intervention involves airway management, treatment of associated pharyngeal perforations, and management of painful symptomatology. The importance of hyoid fracture, however, rests not with the rarity of it, but with the lethal potential of missed diagnosis. We submit three cases with varying presentations and management strategies. All three of our cases incurred injury by blunt trauma to the anterior neck. Two patients required emergent surgical airway after unsuccessful attempts at endotracheal intubation. One patient presented without respiratory distress and was managed conservatively. After fracture, the occult compressive forces of hematoma formation and soft tissue swelling may compromise airway patency. It is our clinical observation that hypoxia develops rapidly and without warning, leading to cardiorespiratory collapse. With endotracheal intubation prohibited by obstruction, a surgical airway must be established and maintained. Recognition of subtle clinical and physical findings are critical to the diagnosis of laryngotracheal complex injuries and may be life-saving in many instances. To ensure a positive outcome, a strong degree of suspicion based on mechanism of injury is mandated.
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ranking = 7.9173838455176
keywords = airway, obstruction
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6/155. Surgical rescue for life-threatening hypoxemia caused by a mediastinal tumor.

    We recently encountered a patient with a large anterior mediastinal tumor who developed severe hypoxemia during general anesthesia. This life-threatening hypoxemia was treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using emergent percutaneous cardiopulmonary support followed by extirpation of the tumor. We found that total arteriovenous shunt resulting from compression by the mediastinal tumor caused this severe hypoxemia (total obstruction of left main bronchus and of the right pulmonary artery).
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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7/155. Successful cricothyrotomy after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a report of two cases.

    Cricothyrotomy is an emergency airway procedure that is generally performed after failure of primary methods for securing the airway. Coagulopathy has traditionally been considered a relative contraindication to cricothyrotomy, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this. There have been no reports of successful cricothyrotomy in a patient who had received systemic thrombolytic therapy. This report, from the National Emergency Airway Registry, is the first to describe successful cricothyrotomy in this context. We describe 2 patients who received thrombolytic therapy and then had cricothyrotomy performed after failure of other airway measures. The first patient was a 67-year-old man who developed severe pulmonary edema and respiratory failure less than 30 minutes after administration of tissue plasminogen activator using an accelerated regimen. Both intubation and attempts at ventilation using an esophageal/tracheal double-lumen airway (Combitube, Kendall-Sheridan, Argyle, NY) were unsuccessful, and the emergency physician then performed an uneventful cricothyrotomy using a vertical midline incision. There were no complications, and bleeding was minimal. The second patient was a 45-year-old man who developed severe angioedema with respiratory compromise after receiving streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. intubation was impossible, and a cricothyrotomy was performed. Significant bleeding was controlled initially with packing and was semielectively explored later in the ICU with ligation of several small bleeding vessels. Prior administration of thrombolytic therapy does not preclude successful cricothyrotomy.
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ranking = 6.9173838455176
keywords = airway
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8/155. Urgency of operation in infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    BACKGROUND: Because the tendency for pulmonary venous obstruction in the infracardiac type of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection may be partially dependent on the connection of the descending vein to the portal vein, the inferior vena cava, or one of their tributary vessels, we reviewed our surgical experience with various subtypes of infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. methods: The urgency of operation in 4 neonates with infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection was reviewed. RESULTS: Two patients with pulmonary venous obstruction in whom the descending vein connected to the portal vein were operated on immediately with successful outcome. One patient who had become critically ill after the ductus venosus had closed died before operation could be undertaken. One patient in whom the descending vein connected to the left hepatic vein was operated on electively with successful outcome. CONCLUSIONS: In hemodynamically stable patients with no clinical or echocardiographic signs of pulmonary venous obstruction, some form of differentiation with regard to urgency of operation may be appropriate. When the descending vein connects to the inferior vena cava or a hepatic vein, the operation may be performed on a semi-elective basis. In contrast, when the descending vein connects to the portal vein or the ductus venosus, operation should generally not be delayed because of the high likelihood of obstruction.
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ranking = 4
keywords = obstruction
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9/155. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB): an increasing trend in drug abuse.

    The use of recreational drugs in society is becoming a widespread problem increasing the workload of all the emergency services. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is one of these, a drug used primarily for its euphoric effect. Toxic effects of ingestion include bradycardia, slow respiration or apnoea, coma and death. We present seven cases, all of which had consumed GHB either alone or in conjunction with other drugs and alcohol. The presentation, clinical features and management of these cases are described. All health care personnel involved in the emergency setting need to know of its existence, toxic effects and initial management with particular reference to airway control and possible assisted ventilation.
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ranking = 1.7293459613794
keywords = airway
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10/155. Management of unexplained coma in children.

    coma in children is uncommon and can pose difficulties in diagnosis and management. resuscitation should concentrate on management of the airway, breathing and circulation and on rapid exclusion of easily correctable conditions, e.g. hypoglycaemia. Common causes of coma are considered and the diagnostic evaluation of these children is discussed. A case of a toddler in coma is discussed from the perspective of the accident and emergency department to illustrate the management of these challenging but uncommon patients.
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ranking = 1.7293459613794
keywords = airway
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