Cases reported "Emergencies"

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1/111. Small ruptured abdominal aneurysm diagnosed by emergency physician ultrasound.

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms currently have a high rate of both mortality and misdiagnosis. Aneurysms smaller than 4 cm are not commonly considered for surgical repair. This report describes the case of a ruptured abdominal aneurysm measuring less than 4 cm diagnosed by the emergency physician utilizing bedside ultrasound. Within 30 minutes of arrival at the emergency department the patient's abdominal pain resolved spontaneously after defecation. If the bedside ultrasound had not been performed it is possible the patient would have been discharged from the hospital without surgical intervention. Bedside ultrasound by emergency physicians may improve the diagnosis of ruptured aortic aneurysms, particularly if the presentation is atypical.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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2/111. Cardiovascular toxicity after ingestion of "herbal ecstacy".

    "Herbal Ecstacy" (sic) is an alternative drug of abuse usually containing both ephedrine and caffeine. Our literature search did not reveal any other reported cases of cardiovascular toxicity related to herbal "drugs of abuse." A case of cardiovascular toxicity following the ingestion of herbal ecstacy is presented. A 21-year-old male presented to the emergency department with an initial blood pressure of 220/110 mmHg and ventricular dysrhythmias after ingesting four capsules of herbal ecstacy. He was treated with lidocaine and sodium nitroprusside, and his symptoms resolved in 9 h. The pathophysiology and clinical course of ephedrine toxicity are discussed. Emergency physicians should consider ephedrine preparations in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a sympathomimetic toxidrome. Drugs of abuse containing "herbal" products can produce serious morbidity and mortality.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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3/111. Percutaneous drainage of emphysematous cholecystitis associated with pneumoperitoneum.

    emphysematous cholecystitis, a relatively rare variant of acute cholecystitis, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In the presence of a concomitant pneumoperitoneum, these rates may be considered even higher, approaching those of perforation of the gallbladder. The first choice of treatment in cases presenting with pneumoperitoneum is emergency laparotomy. We performed a staged procedure as a second best alternative. In a 65 year-old female patient, initial percutaneous cholecystostomy with a strict intravenous antibiotics regimen, and subsequent cholecystectomy 6 months, later was carried out with successful outcome. A review of the literature revealed 13 other cases of this combination. Treatment modalities and outcome of these patients are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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4/111. Neurogenic pulmonary oedema after generalized epileptic seizure.

    The diagnosis 'tonic clonic seizure' is frequently established by emergency physicians on scene. In patients with epilepsy mortality due to accidents, asphyxia, cardiac arrhythmias or postictal neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPO) is twice as high as in the general population. We report a case of acute pulmonary oedema after a tonic clonic seizure. Following this event, the patient developed respiratory insufficiency and evidence of pulmonary oedema not associated with the classic aetiologies of congestive heart failure, aspiration or toxic exposure. The patient survived the incident after aggressive prehospital treatment, long-term intensive care and subsequent rehabilitation. A systematic case analysis and an introduction to the pathophysiology of NPO are presented. We recommend a positive approach to the management of NPO consisting primarily of interventions to stabilize vital functions, decrease intracranial pressure and normalize vegetative dysregulation. Emergency physicians need to consider the possibility of NPO in all cases of pulmonary oedema of unknown origin.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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5/111. Treatment of life-threatening huge atrial myxoma: report of two cases.

    We herein report two patients with left atrial myxoma who needed an emergency operation. Case 1 was a 48-year-old woman who was injured in a traffic accident and underwent an operation for a right leg fracture. Just after the operation she developed cardiac and respiratory arrest with complaints of chest pain. She was successfully resuscitated and diagnosed to have a left atrial myxoma by echocardiography. Emergency surgery was performed and a giant left atrial myxoma was thus removed from the atrial septum. Case 2 was a 54-year-old housewife who was transferred to our department under the diagnosis of a left atrial myxoma by echocardiography. She complained of dyspnea and chest discomfort. By angiography, the tumor was seen to be partially incarcerated at the diastolic phase. A huge myxoma was removed from the atrial septum which was secured by a patch closure. Cardiac echocardiography can help rule out left atrial myxoma if it is highly suspected. As early surgical mortality is low and the long-term results are good, we strongly believe that patients with cardiac myxoma should be operated on as early as possible, once a diagnosis is made.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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6/111. Spontaneous dissection of coronary artery in a patient with ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic valve regurgitation.

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of myocardial infarction associated with a significant high morbidity and mortality. It usually occurs in relatively young patients and it is frequently found at autopsy. We report a case of a 42-year-old woman, who underwent resection of subaortic diaphragm ten years earlier presenting with postero-lateral myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography revealed a dissection of the left main stem extending distally to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and circumflex artery (Cx); occlusion of the postero-lateral branch of the Cx; severe aortic valve regurgitation and ascending aortic aneurysm. She was successfully operated on in emergency and underwent myocardial revascularization and separate replacement of the aortic valve and the ascending aorta. In this specific case of coronary dissection and severe aortic regurgitation it is mandatory to perform surgery in emergency to limit infarction evolution and avert loss of life.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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7/111. Blunt thoracic aortic injuries: initial evaluation and management.

    In at least one large study, the average time from arrival at the emergency department to arrival in the operating room was nearly 6 hours. That 30% of survivors will die in the same amount of time underscores the need for rapid diagnosis and treatment. In blunt thoracic aortic injury, beta-blockers have been shown to reduce the incidence of rupture, and their use is rarely contraindicated. A working knowledge of the mechanisms of injury likely to produce this lesion, commonly associated injuries, clinically relevant and easily recognizable chest film findings, and appropriate use of beta-blockade can have a significant impact on mortality. Any physician responsible for evaluation of trauma patients should be familiar with this information.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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8/111. Emergency and elective surgical treatment of portal hypertension. A review of 23 years' experience.

    A retrospective review of surgical treatment for portal hypertension during a 23-year period in a regional unit is reported and the immediate and subsequent management of patients with bleeding oesophageal varices is discussed. Fifty-four patients with recurrent varix haemorrhage uncontrolled by conservative methods have been treated by oesophageal transection with a mortality of 22.2% (26.6% for cirrhotic patients). Thirty-two per cent of the cirrhotics were alive after 2 years. Only a minority (12%) of the survivors were considered suitable for a subsequent shunt procedure. Therapeutic portacaval anastomosis has been performed on 65 patients with a 51.2% 5-year survival (43-5% for cirrhotic patients). Further haemorrhage due to shunt thrombosis occurred in 5-3% of cases. The frequent occurrence of portal-systemic encephalopathy, increasing with duration of time following a shunt, is emphasized. The high morbidity and mortality in the poor-risk cirrhotic indicated that this type of patient is unsuitable for a portal-systemic shunt and is better treated by medical means.
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ranking = 2
keywords = mortality
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9/111. Spontaneous hepatic rupture in pregnancy.

    The HELLP-syndrome (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) is associated with pre-eclampsia and may cause subcapsular liver haematomas. When hepatic rupture occurs the mortality of mother and unborn is high. rupture remains a surgical emergency with control of bleeding based on trauma principles. We report a case and discuss the diagnosis and management.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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10/111. Emergency adult to adult living donor liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure.

    BACKGROUND: The high mortality rate associated with fulminant hepatic failure combined with the limited availability of cadaveric organs requires consideration of alternatives to conventional cadaveric transplantation. Use of the donor right lobe in adult-to-adult living donor transplantation holds promise in a variety of circumstances, including high-acuity situations. methods: A 28-year-old male with fulminant hepatic failure secondary to hepatitis b was referred to our institution. He rapidly progressed to grade IV encephalopathy, and laboratory values were indicative of a poor prognosis without transplantation. He was listed for transplantation as UNOS status I. Three siblings were simultaneously evaluated for living liver donation. Following established protocols, we completed donor evaluation in less than 24 hr, and donor right lobectomy and living donor transplantation were performed within 36 hr of the recipient's admission to our center. RESULTS: The donor surgery was uncomplicated, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 4. The recipient experienced full recovery and was discharged home on postoperative day 14. Of note, the first offer for a cadaveric liver came more than 60 hr after living donor transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Thorough donor workup can be completed in less than 24 hr without inappropriate abbreviation of the evaluation. Simultaneous workup of willing individuals prevents unnecessary delay. Living donor transplantation should be considered for patients with fulminant hepatic failure who are appropriate transplant candidates.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mortality
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