Cases reported "Emergencies"

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1/222. Pericardial drainage prior to operation contributes to surgical repair of traumatic cardiac injury.

    We report on two cases of successful surgical repair of cardiac injury: one involving a left ventricular stab injury and the other a blunt rupture of the right atrium. Each patient underwent emergency surgical repair, the former via left anterolateral thoracotomy and the latter via median sternotomy, following pericardial drainage tube insertion from the subxiphoid area. The operative approach was chosen according to the color of drained blood, i.e., arterial bleeding indicated left anterolateral thoracotomy, while venous bleeding indicated median sternotomy. We conclude that pericardial drainage via the subxiphoid approach prior to induction of anesthesia is an easy and useful technique to perform, not only to release cardiac tamponade but to determine the operative approach in patients suffering from cardiac tamponade following cardiac injury.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/222. Intraoperative echocardiography in cardiac emergencies.

    echocardiography has brought about a new modality of surgical decision making in open heart surgery. Especially in urgent and emergency surgery, echocardiography can provide decisive insight into the underlying pathophysiological processes, improved monitoring of cardiac function, as well as immediate quality control after the procedure. The importance of intraoperative echocardiography for the cardiac surgeon is illustrated in a number of selected case reports.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = operative
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3/222. The efficacy of integrating "smart simulated casualties" in hospital disaster drills.

    INTRODUCTION: Full-scale disaster drills are complex, expensive, and may involve hundreds or thousands of people. However, even when carefully planned, they often fail to manifest the details of medical care given to the casualties during the drill. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of integrating physicians among the simulated casualties of a hospital disaster drill. methods: A total of 178 physicians graduating an Advanced Trauma life Support (ATLS) course participated in eight hospital disaster drills during 1994 as "Smart Victims." The participants were given cards with descriptions of their injury and detailed instructions on how to manipulate their medical condition according to the medical care provided in the hospital. They also were given coded questionnaires to fill out during the process of the drill. Conclusions were drawn from analysis of the questionnaires and from a roundtable discussion following each drill. RESULTS: The "smart casualties" made comments on the following topics: 1) triage (over-triage in 9%, and under-triage in 4%); 2) treatment sites; 3) medical equipment usage (i.e., shortage of ventilators and splinting devices); 4) medical knowledge and care rendered by the hospital staff; 5) evacuation and escorting of the wounded; 6) management of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder; and 7) medical documentation. Their comments contributed valuable information on the quality of medical care and organization, and identified obstacles that otherwise would have been overlooked. The "smart casualties" were very cooperative and indicated that their participation in the drill contributed to their understanding of disaster situations in hospitals. CONCLUSION: Integrating physicians among the simulated casualties in a hospital disaster drill may contribute to achieving the objectives of hospital disaster drills and add to disaster management education of the simulated casualty physicians.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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4/222. Chronic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta presenting with right pleural effusion and left phrenic paralysis.

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with chronic dysphagia and lower back pain. Chest radiography revealed a wide mediastinal shadow and an elevated left diaphragm, which proved to be secondary to left phrenic paralysis. The patient was diagnosed with an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta and was admitted to the hospital. After the patient was admitted, the aneurysm ruptured into the right chest. The patient underwent an emergency operation to replace the ruptured segment with a synthetic graft. Postoperative recovery and follow-up were uneventful. This report describes an unusual presentation of a thoracic aortic aneurysm. Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis caused by compression of the phrenic nerve is an unusual complication that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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5/222. Aortocaval fistula in ruptured aneurysms.

    OBJECTIVES: to study incidence, clinical presentation and problems in management of aortocaval fistula in our series. DESIGN: retrospective study. MATERIALS: during a seven-year period, 112 patients operated on for abdominal aortic aneurysm, including four patients with aortocaval fistula. methods: standard repair of aortocaval fistula from inside the aneurysmal sac was the preferred operative technique. RESULTS: the incidence of aortocaval fistula was 3.6%. Three cases were found incidentally during emergency surgery for ruptured aneurysms; the fourth case was an isolated aortocaval fistula associated with inferior vena cava thrombosis, diagnosed preoperatively by angiography. In this case, inferior vena cava ligation instead of standard aortocaval repair was performed. CONCLUSIONS: Aortocaval fistulas, although rare, should be kept in mind, because clinical diagnosis is often difficult. Furthermore, unsuspected problems during repair may necessitate appropriate change in operative technique.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = operative
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6/222. Extensor tendon lacerations in a preterm neonate.

    A fetus of 30-weeks' gestation sustained 2 extensor tendon lacerations as an intraoperative complication of an emergency cesarean section. This report describes treatment of the tendon lacerations in the preterm neonate using 2 different repair techniques which both yielded an excellent clinical outcome.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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7/222. Successful treatment of a patient with ARDS after pneumonectomy using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) was used in a patient who developed the acute respiratory distress syndrome 5 days following a right pneumonectomy for bronchogenic carcinoma. When conventional pressure-controlled ventilation failed to maintain adequate oxygenation, HFOV dramatically improved oxygenation within the first few hours of therapy. Pulmonary function and gas exchange recovered during a 10-day period of HFOV. No negative side effects were observed. Early use of HFOV may be a beneficial ventilation strategy for adults with acute pulmonary failure, even in the postoperative period after lung resection.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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8/222. Anaesthetic management of a patient with pemphigus vulgaris for emergency laparotomy.

    A 45-year-old man with a long-standing history of duodenal ulcer presented with symptoms and signs of perforation peritonitis. He also had lesions of pemphigus vulgaris throughout the body, involving both skin and mucous membranes. Care was taken to avoid pressure and friction during placement of monitoring devices, intravenous and arterial lines. Since the patient had to undergo exploratory laparotomy, intubation was performed in an atraumatic manner after rapid sequence induction. However, there was minor bleeding from the mucous lesions of the oral cavity, which was controlled by a saline adrenaline throat pack. The patient was extubated at the end of the surgery and steroids were continued in the peri-operative period.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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9/222. Primary aortoduodenal fistula treated successfully with surgery in a patient with Takayasu's arteritis.

    Takayasu's arteritis was originally described as a systemic inflammatory arterial disease presenting with occlusive changes. However, it has also been known to cause aneurysm formation. In this report, a patient with Takayasu's arteritis was found to have an aortoduodenal fistula. An emergency operation was carried out with resection of the saccular aneurysm and the fistula. The aorta was reconstructed with a prosthetic graft and the duodenum repaired. A pedicled omental flap was placed between the aorta and the duodenum. The postoperative recovery was uneventful, there was no evidence of persistent bleeding, and the patient was well at the 3-year follow-up. This is the first case in the English language literature of a primary aortoduodenal fistula treated successfully with surgery in a patient with Takayasu's arteritis.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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10/222. Stanford type A acute dissection developing acute myocardial infarction.

    A 75-year-old female, exhibiting epigastric pain and vomiting, underwent treatment for acute gastritis. She also experienced incontinence of urine and chest pain. A diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was made upon examination of electrocardiographic findings and the patient was transferred to our hospital. Diffuse infarction of the left ventricle and acute aortic dissection (Stanford type A) were diagnosed by electrocardiographic and echo-cardiography. An emergency operation was performed. After induction of anesthesia, elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and fall of pulse pressure were observed, indicating acute cardiac tamponade. Transesophageal ultrasonography disclosed the entry of dissection in the descending aorta. dissection of the aorta extended proximally up to the annulus of the aortic valve and the right and left coronary arteries were compressed by its aneurysm. As aortic insufficiency was mild, only reconstruction of the ascending aorta was carried out. The patient was discharged in fair condition one month after operation under use of postoperative long-term administration of catecholamines.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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