Cases reported "Emergencies"

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1/19. Viral myocarditis presenting with seizure and electrocardiographic findings of acute myocardial infarction in a 14-month-old child.

    Acute viral myocarditis is an uncommon but potentially fatal illness in children. patients with myocarditis may present with nonspecific symptoms or atypical findings that make diagnosis in the emergency department difficult. We describe a previously healthy 14-month-old child with difficulty breathing and a tonic-clonic seizure who was subsequently found to have ECG changes and cardiac marker elevation consistent with acute myocardial infarction. The patient was immediately transferred from our community hospital ED to our tertiary care children's hospital. Shortly after admission, the patient developed intractable nonperfusing ventricular arrhythmias necessitating extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Cardiac function did not recover, and the patient required heart transplantation before cessation of bypass. serology and anatomic pathology confirmed coxsackievirus B myocarditis. This case illustrates (1) the nonspecific presentation of myocarditis as dyspnea and seizure, (2) the manner in which myocarditis can mimic myocardial infarction, and (3) the importance of early diagnosis in the ED and transfer to a tertiary care facility.
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2/19. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB): an increasing trend in drug abuse.

    The use of recreational drugs in society is becoming a widespread problem increasing the workload of all the emergency services. Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is one of these, a drug used primarily for its euphoric effect. Toxic effects of ingestion include bradycardia, slow respiration or apnoea, coma and death. We present seven cases, all of which had consumed GHB either alone or in conjunction with other drugs and alcohol. The presentation, clinical features and management of these cases are described. All health care personnel involved in the emergency setting need to know of its existence, toxic effects and initial management with particular reference to airway control and possible assisted ventilation.
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keywords = respiration
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3/19. Management of unexplained coma in children.

    coma in children is uncommon and can pose difficulties in diagnosis and management. resuscitation should concentrate on management of the airway, breathing and circulation and on rapid exclusion of easily correctable conditions, e.g. hypoglycaemia. Common causes of coma are considered and the diagnostic evaluation of these children is discussed. A case of a toddler in coma is discussed from the perspective of the accident and emergency department to illustrate the management of these challenging but uncommon patients.
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4/19. Venous air embolism during home infusion therapy.

    Venous air embolism (VAE) is a potential complication of surgical procedures as well as central venous access. There are several reports in the literature of VAE during the in-hospital use and placement of central venous access. However, we are unaware of previous cases of VAE in children who received home infusion therapy via central venous access. We report the occurrence of a VAE in a 2-year-old with a Broviac catheter for home intravenous antibiotic therapy. VAE occurred when a bolus of air was unintentionally administered as the mother removed the cassette from the pump when it was alarming air in line. The cassette and tubing had been placed into the pump without a fluid flush. After the tubing and cassette were removed from the pump, the air in the line was allowed to flow by gravity into the patient, resulting in the immediate onset of respiratory and neurologic symptoms. The mother administered 2 rescue breaths, and the child's color and breathing returned to normal over the next 2 minutes. After the child arrived in the emergency department, the child's mental status returned to normal and the remainder of her physical examination was unremarkable. She had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital the following day. Additional antibiotic administration was accomplished in the emergency department of a local hospital. VAE can occur spontaneously when there is an open venous structure 5 cm or more above the heart or if air is delivered under pressure into the venous system, such as during a laparoscopy or mishaps with infusion bags. The morbidity and mortality of VAE are related to the volume of air, rate of entrainment, the patient's underlying cardiorespiratory status, and the patient's position. morbidity and mortality occur as a consequence of right ventricular outflow obstruction or end-organ dysfunction from left-sided obstruction of coronary or cerebral vasculature as air passes across a patent foramen ovale or through the pulmonary circulation. Of all the literature pertaining to VAE with central lines, there are no previous reports of VAE occurring during home infusion therapy in children. With managed care requiring shorter hospitalizations and more children being discharged from the hospital on home infusion therapy, parents and lay caregivers are being asked to administer medications and perform routine maintenance on central venous devices. In our case, despite the fact that the mother had been educated regarding the appropriate technique for medication administration, she forgot to purge the air from the line before connecting the tubing and administering the antibiotic. Although the infusion pump will alarm when there is air in the line, it detects air only in a small part of the line and this safety feature is not in play if the device is removed from the infusion pump and administered via gravity. If such safety precautions are not adhered to, then the volume of air that fills the intravenous tubing from the drip chamber to the patient (25-30 mL in the pediatric infusion pump tubing used in our patient) can be infused by gravity into the patient's venous system. Because the consequences of VAE are so severe, the focus should be on prevention. Pumps used for home infusion therapy should have appropriate alarms to alert caregivers to the presence of air in the line. Obviously, this will not totally prevent this complication as this type of pump was used in our patient. It is crucial to educate caregivers of patients with central venous access regarding the hazards of VAE and safety measures to prevent it. With the increased use of home infusion therapy, ongoing evaluations of complications related to this form of therapy are mandatory so that there is continued evaluation of practices and appropriate changes made when necessary to increase further the safety of these techniques.
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5/19. Unusual arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern in an adult presenting with apneic spells and normal pressure hydrocephalus--case report.

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus, lower cranial nerve pareses, and pyramidal and cerebellar signs associated with respiratory disturbances. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 4.7 x 5.4 cm quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst causing severe compression of the tectum and entire brain stem, aqueduct, and cerebellum, associated with moderate dilation of the third and lateral ventricles. Emergency surgery was undertaken due to sudden loss of consciousness and impaired breathing. The cyst was totally removed by midline suboccipital craniotomy in the prone position. Postoperatively, her symptoms improved except for the ataxia and impaired breathing. She was monitored cautiously for over 15 days. CT at discharge on the 18th postoperative day revealed decreased cyst size to 3.9 x 4.1 cm. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of the arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern. The patient died of respiratory problems on the 5th day after discharge. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts may compress the brain stem and cause severe respiratory disturbances, which can be fatal due to apneic spells. patients should be monitored continuously in the preoperative and postoperative period until the restoration of autonomous ventilation is achieved.
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keywords = breathing
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6/19. Bilateral choanal atresia--respiratory emergency in a neonate.

    Bilateral choanal atresia is potentially a fatal respiratory emergency in a newborn. A 2-day-old full term male infant was presented with history of attacks of cyanosis, difficulty in suckling and respiration. On examination cyclical change of body colour, ie, alternating cyanosis and normal colour was observed. CT scan of the base of the skull revealed bilateral choanal atresia. The patient underwent choanal canalisation operation by transnasal route using Lichtwitz trocar and cannula with controlled force.
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keywords = respiration
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7/19. Neonatal resuscitation emergencies at birth: case reports, using NRP 2000 guidelines.

    In 2000, the American Academy of pediatrics and the american heart association formulated new international evidence-based guidelines for neonatal resuscitation. Whereas the earlier Neonatal resuscitation Program guidelines incorporated a hierarchical approach to resuscitation, the revised program bases interventions on simultaneous assessment of breathing, heart rate, and color. resuscitation success builds on the concepts of resuscitation readiness, knowledge and skills, teamwork, and self-efficacy. Six case reports illustrate revised Neonatal resuscitation Program guidelines for managing selected resuscitation emergencies of newborns.
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8/19. Glossopharyngeal and neck accessory muscle breathing in a young adult with C2 complete tetraplegia resulting in ventilator dependency.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This case report describes the use of glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) and neck accessory muscle breathing (NAMB) in the treatment of an individual who was dependent on a ventilator secondary to a spinal cord injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 19-year-old man with C2 complete tetraplegia. He received a 5-week inpatient program of GPB training 3 to 4 times per week. A 4-week NAMB training program followed. OUTCOME: Following GPB training, forced vital capacity increased 35-fold, time off the ventilator improved from 0 to 30 minutes, and a nonfunctional cough became a weak functional cough. After NAMB training, the patient was able to be off the ventilator for 2 minutes. DISCUSSION: Increased ventilatory capability has the potential to affect patients' quality of life by improving cough function and decreasing dependence on a ventilator in the event of accidental disconnection.
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keywords = breathing
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9/19. rupture of the lesser gastric curvature after a heimlich maneuver.

    BACKGROUND: We present a case of lesser gastric curvature injury after a heimlich maneuver due to obstruction of the breathing tract that was repaired by laparoscopic surgery. methods: A patient with perforation of the lesser gastric curvature as a result of closed abdominal traumatism was operated on using the laparoscopic approach with the use of four trocars as work openings. With this technique, the diagnosis was confirmed, the injury repaired, and the abdominal cavity washed. RESULTS: The postoperative period was favorable and the patient was released from the hospital on day 7 without any complications. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic surgery can be technically reproduced in the treatment of gastric injury as a result of closed abdominal traumatism.
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10/19. Life-threatening vocal cord paralysis in a patient with group A xeroderma pigmentosum.

    We report a 19-year-old male with group A xeroderma pigmentosum who presented life-threatening vocal cord paralysis. At 3 months of age, he became sensitive to sunlight, and at the age of 4 years he was diagnosed with group A xeroderma pigmentosum. The neurologic symptoms progressed slowly thereafter. From the age of 18 years, he reported the development of occasional episodic inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but the cause remained unknown. At the age of 19, he had a common cold and became severely dyspneic and cyanotic. Immediate examination of the glottis upon arrival by an otorhinolaryngologist using a fibroscope indicated complete paralysis of both vocal cords, and tracheal intubation resulted in marked improvement of respiration. tracheostomy was performed thereafter. Inspiratory stridor and dyspnea are the common symptoms in this disease, and some patients with group A xeroderma pigmentosum undergo a tracheostomy, but the pathogenesis remains unknown. To our knowledge, vocal cord paralysis has never been reported in patients with group A xeroderma pigmentosum. This case is presented to illustrate the importance of fibroscopy in the examination of vocal cords in patients with group A xeroderma pigmentosum before the development of life-threatening events.
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keywords = respiration
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