Cases reported "Empyema, Subdural"

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1/102. Subdural empyema and blindness due to cavernous sinus thrombosis in acute frontal sinusitis.

    In this era of antibiotics, the complications of acute sinusitis are much less frequently encountered. Although orbital complications are most common, intracranial complications carry a high rate of mortality and morbidity. We describe a case of acute frontal sinusitis with subdural empyema and blindness due to cavernous sinus thrombosis and carotid artery thrombosis with a discussion of treatment of these complications and the etiology of blindness in sinusitis.
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2/102. Infratentorial subdural empyema, pituitary abscess, and septic cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis secondary to paranasal sinusitis: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Infratentorial empyema, pituitary abscess, and septic cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis are all rare and potentially lethal conditions. The occurrence of all three in a single patient has not previously been described. We present such a case occurring in a young, otherwise healthy man. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old man with a remote history of sinusitis developed rapidly progressive headache, fever, right eye pain, swelling, proptosis, and visual impairment. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse pansinusitis, including sphenoid sinusitis, and extension of inflammation and infection into the adjacent cavernous sinuses, pituitary gland, and posterior fossa. INTERVENTION: Urgent drainage of the ethmoid and maxillary sinuses was performed; pus was not identified. The patient continued to deteriorate clinically with worsening of visual acuity. Computed tomography of the head performed the next day revealed worsening hydrocephalus and an enlarging posterior fossa subdural empyema. Urgent ventricular drainage and evacuation of the empyema was performed, and subsequently, the patient's clinical course improved. The microbiology results revealed alpha hemolytic streptococcus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus species. The patient survived but during the follow-up period had a blind right eye and pituitary insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Paranasal sinusitis can have devastating intracranial sequelae. Involvement of the adjacent pituitary gland and cavernous sinuses can result in serious neurological morbidity or mortality, and retrograde spread of infection through the basal venous system can result in subdural or parenchymal brain involvement. A high index of suspicion and aggressive medical and surgical treatment are crucial for patient survival, but the morbidity rate remains high. Our patient survived but lost anterior pituitary function and vision in his right eye.
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3/102. Subdural empyema complicating cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection.

    Subdural empyema has not been reported previously as a complication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt surgery. An infant submitted to CSF shunt insertion for congenital hydrocephalus developed subdural empyema after a failed attempt to treat a superficial scalp wound infection with oral antibiotics. enterobacter cloacae was isolated from the empyema. Temporizing management of the preceding superficial wound infection with oral antibiotics probably was the cause of this exotic pathogen. The treatment of infected scalp wounds contiguous with shunt hardware must be surgical.
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4/102. Sinogenic subdural empyema and streptococcus anginosus.

    Subdural empyema (SDE) is most commonly caused by sinusitis and, without early diagnosis and neurosurgical intervention, is associated with high mortality. In a patient with sinusitis who presents with mental status changes, the diagnosis of SDE should be suspected on clinical grounds, even in the absence of significant computed tomographic findings. Computed tomography with contrast is a useful aid in the diagnosis of SDE, but findings may be subtle, and contrasted magnetic resonance imaging is superior. The association of streptococcus anginosus sinusitis and related intracranial sequelae is important owing to the potentially catastrophic complications and should be recognized by otolaryngologists. In view of the rapidly progressing nature of sinogenic SDE, physicians should strongly consider early institution of aggressive therapy consisting of craniotomy with concurrent sinus drainage in patients in whom sinogenic SDE is suspected on clinical grounds, particularly in the presence of S. anginosus-positive sinus cultures.
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5/102. Cranial epidural empyema with osteomyelitis caused by actinomyces, CT, and MRI appearance.

    actinomycosis is an uncommon cause of intracranial infection. Epidural empyema represents about 6% of CNS actinomycotic lesions. A case of an epidural empyema with parietal bone osteomyelitis caused by actinomyces israelii is presented. Relevant neuroimaging features were bone erosions and a multiloculated collection with annular contrast enhancing on CT. Postoperative MRI revealed extensive involvement of the neighbor dura, falx, and subdural space. MRI was crucial to follow-up the response to antibiotic treatment.
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6/102. Non-typhoid salmonella subdural empyema in children: report of two cases.

    Subdural empyema caused by salmonella in childhood is an uncommon condition. The predisposing factors for this condition are not clearly established, especially in young children. Here we present two cases of subdural empyema caused by non-typhoidal salmonella. Both of the patients suffered prolonged fever without local signs of infection on admission. Subdural empyema was subsequently detected by brain echo and brain computerized tomography (CT) scan in both cases. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study was not done in case one due to prominent mass effect on brain CT; in case two the CSF analysis showed pleocytosis, but CSF bacterial culture was negative. Neither enteritis nor obvious meningeal sign was noted. Both cases responded well to surgical drainage and systemic antibiotics treatment.
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7/102. An unusual subdural empyema: case report.

    Subdural empyema in a 38-year-old patient with congenital hemangioma, suppurative parotitisis, soft tissue phlegmonia and osteomyelitis is reported. The clinical, radiological and surgical features are outlined. A review of the literature reveals the uniqueness of this case.
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8/102. Extensive subdural empyema treated with drainage and barbiturate therapy under intracranial pressure monitoring: case report.

    In subdural empyema (SDE), if the mass effect and vasogenic edema are not controlled, the brain can be fatally damaged. Massive SDE over the skull base often requires repeated surgical drainage for removal of accumulated pus. intracranial pressure (ICP) management until obliteration of the empyema is important to the improvement of clinical outcome. An 18-year-old man was admitted to our center in a nearly comatose state and with a mild fever. CT scan showed massive SDE extending to the skull base and parafalx. ICP was measured with a pressure transducer through an intraventricle tube. Repeated surgical drainage was performed while ICP was controlled with barbiturate therapy. He was discharged with no neurological deficits. In patients with an extensive SDE over the cerebral hemisphere, ICP control with barbiturate therapy may enhance the therapeutic effect of surgical drainage.
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9/102. De novo development of presumed cavernomas following resolution of E. Coli subdural empyemas.

    Cavernomas fall within the group of angiographically occult lesions and may be found in up to 4 % of the population [1]. They may occur at any age, and with the advent of MRI incidental cavernomas are increasingly identified. The pathogenesis is uncertain. Familial cases are well recognised with a reported prevalence of 10-15 % [2-3]. The incidence of new lesions has been reported at 0.4 lesions per patient per year in cases with familial cavernomas [4]. Presumed cavernomas have been documented following radiation for malignancy [5-6], and stereotactic cerebral biopsy [7]. There have been no previously documented cases of de novo genesis of cavernomas following bacterial meningitis and subdural empyemas.
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10/102. Juxtapositioning of the temporalis muscle for intractable subdural empyema in infants.

    We present a case of refractory infantile subdural empyema secondary to pneumococcal meningitis. Initial treatment was with antibiotics and multiple burr hole drainage of the subdural space. As there was no significant improvement with this standard procedure, craniectomy, and juxtapositioning of the temporalis muscle was conducted and the patient recovered promptly.
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