Cases reported "Encephalitis, Arbovirus"

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1/3. Herpesnephropathy.

    Two cases of acute renal insufficiency occurred in association with episodes of severe encephalitis due to herpes simplex type I. The possibility was considered that the renal failure was due to viral infection of the kidneys, and animal experiments were carried out in an attempt to confirm this. Young new zealand albino rabbits were infected i. v. with HSV type I; the virus antigen was detected in the kidney of 8 of 10 animals, and IgG was found on the GBM in 9 of 19 animals. Viruria was observed in 12 of the 29 infected animals, and electronmicroscopic examination confirmed the presence of immune complexes in the glomeruli.
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2/3. Uptake of 5(125I) iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IDU) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in a case of herpes encephalitis with a comparative study on the uptake in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue in dogs.

    A case of herpes encephalitis diagnosed by brain biopsy and treated with 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IDU) is presented. The infection occurred in a previously well 19-year-old female patient. plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) uptake of the substance was determined using 125I labelled IDU. Top CSF levels of IUD and metabolites of less than 4 microgram/ml, about 1/10 of the corresponding plasma level, were obtained after 6 hours of continuous infusion. The result is discussed and compared with a similar study made on 5 healthy beagle dogs where in addition the levels obtained in various parts of the brain were determined. In the animal experiment a mean value of 2.5 microgram/ml of IDU and metabolites was obtained in the CSF after 8 hours, less than 1/20 of the plasma level. The levels in brain tissue were only slightly higher than in the CSF. The causes of therapeutic failures with IDU treatment are discussed.
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3/3. A presumptive case of fatal Murray Valley encephalitis acquired in Alice Springs.

    A presumptive case of Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) acquired in Alice Springs in March 1997 is reported. The patient subsequently died in Mackay. The diagnosis of Murray Valley encephalitis was supported by the detection of flavivirus IgM in cerebrospinal fluid. Low titres of IgM specific to Murray Valley encephalitis and Alfuy were detected in a single serum sample. The patient's travel movements indicate that his infection was acquired in the Alice Springs vicinity. This conclusion was further supported by the detection of Murray Valley encephalitis activity in sentinel animals in the area and by the presence of large numbers of the principal mosquito vector of Murray Valley encephalitis in the northern territory.
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