Cases reported "Encephalitis, Japanese"

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1/38. Sudden death after typhoid and Japanese encephalitis vaccination in a young male taking pseudoephedrine.

    The case of a 21-year-old male taking over-the-counter pseudoephedrine for weight loss who died suddenly during exercise shortly after inoculation with Japanese encephalitis and phenol-inactivated typhoid vaccines is presented. The patient collapsed in mild weather while exercising 75 minutes after his vaccinations. He presented in asystole with a core temperature of 42.2 degrees C (108 degrees F). There was no evidence of urticaria or angioedema. It is likely that the combined pyrogenic effects of the vaccines, pseudoephedrine, exercise, and mild obesity contributed to a failure of the thermoregulatory system. fever is still a common side effect of numerous other vaccines. Military physicians should consider administrative controls on thermogenic activities for a period after inoculations. Additionally, the dangers of ephedrine-containing compounds need to be more widely publicized.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/38. Japanese encephalitis in north queensland, australia, 1998.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the circumstances of two cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in north queensland in 1998, including one acquired on the Australian mainland. DESIGN: Serological surveillance of sentinel pigs for JE virus activity; serological surveys of humans and pigs and viral cultures of mosquito collections. SETTING: islands in the Torres Strait and communities in the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA) and near the mouth of the Mitchell River in Cape York, queensland, in the 1998 wet season (December 1997-May 1998). RESULTS: Sentinel pigs in the Torres Strait began to seroconvert to JE virus in February 1998, just before onset of JE in an unvaccinated 12-year-old boy on Badu island. By mid-April, most sentinel pigs had seroconverted. Numerous JE viruses were isolated from culex annulirostris mosquitoes collected on Badu. In early March, a person working at the mouth of the Mitchell River developed JE. Serological surveys showed recent JE virus infection in 13 young pigs on a nearby farm, but not in 488 nearby residents. In NPA communities, sentinel pigs seroconverted slowly and JE viruses were isolated from three, but none of 604 residents showed evidence of recent infection. Nucleotide sequencing showed that 1998 JE virus isolates from the Torres Strait were virtually identical not only to the 1998 isolate from an NPA pig, but also to previous (1995) Badu isolates. CONCLUSIONS: JE virus activity was more widespread in north queensland in the 1998 wet season than in the three previous wet seasons, but ecological circumstances (e.g., less intensive pig husbandry, fewer mosquitoes) appear to have limited transmission on the mainland. Nucleotide sequencing indicated a common source for the 1995 and 1998 JE viruses. Circumstantial evidence suggests that cyclonic winds carried infected mosquitoes from papua new guinea.
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ranking = 1.0209598708452
keywords = encephalitis, virus
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3/38. Parkinsonism due to predominant involvement of substantia nigra in Japanese encephalitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical correlates of lesions seen predominantly in the substantia nigra in some patients with Japanese encephalitis (JE). BACKGROUND: JE typically involves thalamus, brainstem, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex. Rarely, basal ganglia and cerebellum may be affected. Lesions are often widespread and discrete. Predominant involvement of substantia nigra in JE has not been previously reported. methods: Of 52 patients with JE seen in an endemic zone, five were selected on the basis of isolated lesions in the substantia nigra on MRI; all were subjected to detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. RESULTS: Presenting symptoms were fever, alteration of consciousness, neck stiffness, and decreased body movements. Examination during acute illness revealed restricted eye movements, opsoclonus, upbeating nystagmus, and cogwheel rigidity. There was early and complete recovery of consciousness and eye signs. Parkinsonian features such as positive glabellar tap sign, masklike face, bradykinesia, tremors, and postural instability became apparent as these patients started walking. Reversible mutism was observed in three patients during the acute phase. Response to levodopa, amantadine, and trihexiphenedyl was partial. Three patients were followed for more than 1 year, during which time their parkinsonian features recovered completely. Substantial recovery was also observed in the two other patients 2 months after regaining consciousness. CONCLUSIONS: Some patients with Japanese encephalitis may have lesions predominantly in the substantia nigra. After recovery from acute encephalitic illness, they manifest clinically with typical parkinsonian features. Although several viruses are known to cause parkinsonism, this is the first demonstration of a virus producing lesions predominantly in the substantia nigra and causing parkinsonism.
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ranking = 1.2052550884171
keywords = encephalitis, virus, fever
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4/38. A case of Japanese encephalitis: CT and MRI findings in acute and convalescent stages.

    We studied the CT and MR images of a patient with Japanese encephalitis. The first symptom was general malaise with high fever. The diagnosis of meningoencephalitis was made by spinal tap and clinical presentation. CT on the third day of illness showed no significant findings. MRI on the fifth day of illness demonstrated that the left thalamus and bilateral putamen were hyperintense on T2-weighted images. On CT one month later, the density in the thalamus and bilateral putamen was normal. MRI two month later showed high signal intensity only in the left thalamus. The patient recovered, but was judged to have dementia according to the simple dementia scale of Hasegawa. Flaccid paralysis was observed during the acute period.
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ranking = 1.2000151207058
keywords = encephalitis, fever
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5/38. Three Japanese encephalitis cases in Okinawa, japan, 1991.

    Since 1974, no Japanese encephalitis (JE) case had been reported on Okinawa island in either Okinawan people or US servicemen. In 1991, three US marines stationed on Okinawa island developed encephalitis symptoms. Neutralization (N) test and IgM-capture ELISA were carried out on the serial samples of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) taken from the patients. In each patient N test on both serum and CSF samples gave a significant rise in JE antibody titer in the comparison between the acute and convalescent phases, indicating that all the cases were infected with JE virus. The IgM-capture ELISA also showed a significant rise of antibody titer of the serum and CSF samples in the convalescent phase in patients 2 and 3, while in patient 1 a significant rise in IgM antibody was observed in the serum sample, but not in the CSF sample. None of the patients had been administered JE vaccine. This report underscores the importance of JE vaccination.
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ranking = 1.2026199838557
keywords = encephalitis, virus
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6/38. A residual cystic lesion in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with a residual cystic lesion on MRI. This seemed to be induced by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. Despite complete clinical improvement with high-dose steroid therapy, the cystic lesion has persisted for 3 years on MRI. There have been no previous reports of residual cystic lesions in ADEM.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = encephalitis
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7/38. Markedly severe dystonia in Japanese encephalitis.

    Encephalitis has been reported to be a rare cause of severe dystonia. We describe five patients with markedly severe dystonia from Japanese encephalitis. These patients with markedly severe dystonia were seen during the past 8 years as a subgroup of 50 patients with Japanese encephalitis. The diagnosis of markedly severe dystonia was based on increasingly frequent episodes of generalized dystonia with bulbar, respiratory, or metabolic derangement or leading to exhaustion or pain. The diagnosis of JE was based on clinicoradiologic features and a fourfold increase of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers in paired serum. The outcome of the patients was defined as a good, partial, or poor recovery on the basis of 1-year clinical status. All the patients were males, and their ages ranged from 6 to 19 years. movement disorders appeared 1 to 3 weeks after the illness as the level of consciousness started improving. During the next 1 to 4 weeks, patients began to experience markedly severe dystonia. It was associated with marked axial dystonia resulting in opisthotonus and retrocollis in five patients, jaw-opening dystonia in two patients, teeth clenching in one patient, and oculogyric crisis and neck deviation in another patient. The attacks of markedly severe dystonia lasted for 2 to 30 minutes and occurred as many as 20 to 30 times daily. Other developments included fixed limb dystonia in one patient, severe spasticity and rigidity in five patients, and focal muscle wasting in one patient. These patients had only a modest improvement after treatment. Markedly severe dystonia abated by 2 to 6 months in all the patients who were followed up. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral thalamic involvement in all patients, brainstem involvement in three patients, and basal ganglia involvement in two patients. At the 3-month follow-up, all patients had a poor outcome. At 1 year, one patient had a complete recovery; one had a partial recovery; and two were bedridden. It can be concluded that markedly severe dystonia is an important and serious sequela of Japanese encephalitis and may occur as the result of thalamus, midbrain, or basal ganglia involvement in various combinations.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = encephalitis
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8/38. Japanese encephalitis with movement disorder and atypical magnetic resonance imaging.

    With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging, brain lesions associated with Japanese encephalitis are increasingly being recognized and correlated with movement disorder. Bilateral haemorrhagic thalamic infarcts on MRI, suggested as a characteristic finding in Japanese encephalitis were conspicuous by their absence in this case report of Japanese encephalitis.
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ranking = 1.4
keywords = encephalitis
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9/38. Acute transverse myelitis after Japanese B encephalitis vaccination in a 4-year-old girl.

    Fourteen days after Japanese B encephalitis (JBE) vaccination, a 4-year-old girl developed the full clinical manifestation of ATM within 24h. She showed acute ascending flaccid paraplegia with sensory disturbance, bladder dysfunction and meningeal sign. cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed neutrophil pleocytosis and elevated protein level. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse swelling of the cervical and lumbar cord with low signal intensity on T1 and high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging. These findings suggested that she had developed meningo-radiculomyelopathy.Since sequential MRI studies showed prompt reduction of the cord swelling, the high-dose methylprednisolone therapy employed seemed to have been effective for improvement of inflammation. Even with such potent drug treatment, she still has substantial flaccid diplegia and sphincter disorder 1 year later, and so we are convinced that the pathological change of the cord was as severe as in necrotizing myelopathy. Although the pathological process remains unknown, cellular autoimmune mechanism against the JBE vaccination is suspected.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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10/38. Emerging viral infections in australia.

    hendra virus infection should be suspected in someone with close association with horses or bats who presents acutely with pneumonia or encephalitis (potentially after a prolonged incubation period). Australian bat lyssavirus infection should be suspected in a patient with a progressive neurological illness and a history of exposure to a bat. rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin should be strongly considered after a bite, scratch or mucous membrane exposure to a bat. Japanese encephalitis vaccine should be considered for people intending to reside in or visit endemic areas of southern or eastern asia for more than 30 days.
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ranking = 0.4052399677113
keywords = encephalitis, virus
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